Loss of hearing noises in ear tinnitus Loss of balance vertigo IX

Loss of hearing noises in ear tinnitus loss of

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Loss of hearing, noises in ear (tinnitus) Loss of balance (vertigo) IX Glossopharyngeal Check gag and swallowing reflex. Test posterior two- thirds of tongue for taste. Person is asked to speak and cough. Loss of gag reflex Difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia) Loss of taste on posterior two-thirds of tongue Decreased salivation Hoarseness of voice X Vagus Similar to testing for CN IX (because they both innervate throat). Sagging of soft palate Hoarseness of voice resulting from paralysis of vocal fold XI Accessory Ask person to rotate head from side to side and to shrug shoulders (against resistance). Drooping shoulders Inability or difficulty in rotating head (wryneck) XII Hypoglossal Person is asked to stick out tongue—note any deviation in position of the protruded tounge. Some difficulty in speaking (dysarthria), chewing, and swallowing (dysphagia) Classification of Spinal Nerves Each pair is numbered according to the level of the spinal cord from which it arises. The 31 pairs are grouped as follows: 8 pairs of cervical nerves, 12 pairs of thoracic nerves, 5 pairs of lumbar nerves,
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5 pairs of sacral nerves, & 1 pair of coccygeal nerves. The lumbar and sacral nerves at the bottom of the cord extend the length of the spinal cavity before exiting from the vertebral column. These nerves are called the cauda equina because they look like a horse’s tail. The nerves exit from the bony vertebral column through tiny holes in the vertebrae called foramina. 3 Major Plexus: Cervical plexus (C1 to C4) Fibers from the cervical plexus supply the muscles and skin of the neck. The phrenic nerve stimulates the contraction of the diaphragm, the major breathing muscle If the spinal cord is severed below the C5 level, the person is paralyzed but can breathe without ventilator assistance. If the level of injury is higher, at C2, the phrenic nerve is injured, motor impulses to the diaphragm are interrupted, and the person cannot breathe normally. This person generally needs the assistance of a ventilator in order to breathe. Brachial plexus (C5 to C8, T1) The nerves that emerge from the brachial plexus supply the muscles and skin of the shoulder, arm, forearm, wrist, and hand. The axillary nerve emerges from this plexus and travels through the shoulder into the arm.
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  • Fall '19
  • Spinal nerve, Brachial plexus

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