The land owners are tied into the old order not

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peasant population. The land owners are tied into the old order: not interested in national liberalism: whole countryside not attracted to this idea. Even in the coastal areas, are not Chinese (many merchants that are so tied into foreign interests) are not interested in nationalist liberalism. What does it have to say about the landless peasants? No land reform, no addressing China's major domestic issue: huge unequal division of property: Communist party understands this, not the nationalist party. Landless peasants not interested in nationalism. Structural terms: similar to Russian revolution. Limits appeal of national liberalism in China. 2) Mao Tse Tung and the CCP (Chinese Communist Party)-puts together program: land redistribution program, and are also anti-imperialist: put together a nationalist and communist program that appeals to more people. How did they do this? Mao doesn't put together what will become the successful program, but this is seomthign that worker over the decade. After 1911, most nationalists in China are liberal nationalists: including Mao. Sense of betrayal that the educated liberals feel: German spheres of influence are transferred to Japan: hits China and liberal nationalist movement like a bomb. Sparks protest movement: May 4 th movement: Sparks first rejection of Mr. Science and Mr. Democracy. West had turned around and slapped them in the face. Mao was one of the people who experience this movement as a moment when he rejected the liberal western project. He was a 26 year old student at the May 4 th event. By 1920, he was reading communist ideology. By 1921 he called himself a communist. In 1921: founded the Communist party, by 1925 many had joined. Major strength: lenin's idea linking imperialism linking poverty: Chinese were poor because of imperialism. China was an even less developed country than Russia had bene in 1917. Lenin had begun moving away from an orthodox Marxism. Industrial proletariat staged revolution. Don't have that base in China to follow this strategy, nevertheless, this was the strategy that the CCP tried to follow. (Reader, Mao selections) a) WWI: Origins of CCP b) Phase One: 1921-1926: Organizing the Urban Working Class-urban revolutions are anti-capitalist and anti-imperialist. Nationalist army comes in and crushes the urban rebellions. Many are killed. By 1926, the urban working class communist party had been destroyed. If communists are going to recover: need new strategy.put peasants at center: start with rural base as center. c) Phase Two: 1927-1936: Organizing Peasants-go into countryside and set up rural communes. Redistribution policy, localized municipal forms of government: here they gain popular support for this type of land redistribution. Nationalists come and destroy them again. Go on the long march: hide out in Hunan: 6000 mile walk: start with 100,000 and end with 8000.
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d) Phase Three: 1937-45: Organizing against the Japanese invasion-when Japanese invade, communists remake themselves as a nationalist Guerrilla force. Communists become the successful national force. E) Conclusion: The Chinese Model
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