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16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 42 Multiple Giftedness in Adults 867 necessary. In fact, the most creative individuals are not those who work within existing fields but who synthesize new fields (along with new modes of thinking and working) from combinations of existing ones – kinetic art, electronic music, sociobiology, and so forth. The polymathy-develops-creativity camp argues that giftedness will be a function of the range of intensively developed vocational and avocational talents, skills, knowledge, and experience combined with the degree to which an individual can correlate these to form integrated networks of enterprise. The polymathy–creativity connection therefore sug- gests a novel way to identify potential creative gift- edness among young adults, which involves surveying two fundamental parameters of vocational and avoca- tional practice. One parameter involves the range of av- ocations practiced by an individual and their attitudes toward those avocations with regard to vocational ac- tivities. Root-Bernstein et al. (1995) demonstrated that scientists with the widest range of avocations and who could explain how these avocations benefited their vo- cational activities were the most successful profession- ally. Root-Bernstein et al. (1993) also found a sec- ond parameter that correlated with professional success among scientists. While most scientists work on one problem at a time, highly successful and creative scien- tists simultaneously investigate multiple problems and employ explicit self-imposed constraints on how much time is to be devoted to each. Creative polymaths, in other words, diversify their efforts and are excellent managers of time and effort. Both sets of parameters are evident in the majority of those who become highly successful scientists by the age of 40 years. These find- ings, along with Milgram’s observation that intellectu- ally intensive avocations among adolescents are an ex- cellent predictor of career success in any field, suggest that it should be possible to identify young adults with high creative potential early in their careers. This issue is not merely of importance to those who study cognitive psychology. Cognitive psychol- ogy is influencing educational practice to an ever greater extent. Minor Myers, Jr., in his capacity as President of Illinois Wesleyan University, pointed out that secondary school and university curricula can foster or discourage the polymath (Myers, 2003; Anderson, 1999). If, as is argued here, polymathy is linked to creativity, then the ways in which our cognitive understanding is translated into curricular practice will have a major impact on the pool of creative individuals in the future. Precocious students and those who excel in one subject are just as unlikely to be the creative standard-bearers in the future as they have been in the past. Time must be made in the curriculum and in leisure time for the development of correlative talents. Much as the diversification of

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