6 with the promise of a 4 year scholarship from

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(“Pakistanis Silence Youthful Voice,” 1995, p. 6). With the promise of a 4-year scholarship from Brandeis University, Iqbal began to attend school in India as he continued his labor activism. He received repeated death threats, however, and on Easter Sunday, 1995, Iqbal was shot to death while riding his bicycle with friends near his grandmother’s house in the small village of Muritke, Pakistan. It is believed that he was killed by vengeful members of the carpet industry. In his short and tragic life, Iqbal Masih had accomplished much. “He was so brave . . . you can’t imagine,” said Ehsan Ullah Kahn, the labor organizer who had first told Iqbal he did not have to return to his oppressive bosses. “He also has managed to free thousands of children” (“Pakistanis Silence Youthful Voice,” 1995, p. 6). To ensure the sacrifice of Iqbal Masih, we must remember his legacy not only as an exploited child worker but as a child activist for his own cause. As Nieuwenhuys (2005, 2009; also see Bourdillon, 2014) has argued from a global and historical perspective, concern for the protection of children by adults in the developed world often blunts our understanding of the com- plexity of and need for children’s labor in developing countries. In develop- ing countries many children combine schooling and work, and their labor Copyright ©2018 by SAGE Publications, Inc. This work may not be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means without express written permission of the publisher. Draft Proof - Do not copy, post, or distribute
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CHAPTER 11: Children, Social Problems, and Society 315 (directly for their families and for others) is an economic necessity. She argued that those who wish to protect children from exploitation must rec- ognize working children’s movements as organizing for the right to work in dignity and to fight for their rights. Here again, as we saw earlier when discussing street children in South America and Africa and HIV/AIDS orphans, developed countries’ perceptions, beliefs, and understanding of childhood, children’s problems, and children’s rights should not be forced on the developing world (see Evans & Skovdal, 2016). We must take care to understand the complexity of these issues from multiple points of view. It is necessary for us to work not only for or in the name of but with those chil- dren and the adults in their lives whom we want to help. Child Poverty in Industrialized Countries In the wealthy nations of the world, children are not shot on the streets for being poor, nor are they allowed to be sold into indentured servitude. The overwhelming majority of children in Western industrialized societies live in relative comfort and have high aspirations and bright futures. However, many poor children do live in the modern industrialized world, and a sig- nificant number live in impoverished and dangerous environments. Children’s poverty varies across wealthy nations. The richest nation in the world, the United States, has one of the highest poverty rates. Worse, despite a growing awareness of the problem, the proportion of children living in poverty has
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