Goldberg deals with this construction in sub-chapter ‘English Serial VerbConstruction’ (Goldberg, 2006) where three main serial constructions areintroduced: the VVingPP construction (informally ‘took-off-screamingconstruction’), theGoVPing (informally ‘don’t go sticking your nose’)construction and the GoVPbare(informally ‘go tell it to the mountain’)construction. The last mentioned construction (which may be illustrated bya sentence Go tell your sister to come here) is irrelevant for this thesis becausethe second verb it contains is not in the ing-form. The characteristics of the23
VVingPP and GoVPing constructions will be dealt with later in the course of thisthesis.On the other hand, Kudrnáčová works mainly with ‘a path verb +a manner of motion verb in the ing-form’ construction. This construction is thenbriefly contrasted with a construction described as ‘a path verb + a manner verbdenoting a non-kinetic type of activity’ (Kudrnáčová, 2008, 53).Therefore, this thesis starts with Goldberg’s division of this constructioninto two main serial constructions and combines them with Kudrnáčová’sclassification. In addition, the construction under analysis is divided into severalsub-types based on the research of the corpora. These sub-types are describedin more detail in the following chapters and corpora examples are used toaccompany the characteristics of each of these sub-types.The existence of the phrases of ‘they came running’ type is also brieflymentioned in Quirk et al (1985) in sub-chapters 8.28 and 8.29, which deal withadjuncts. They mention not only motion verbs comeand gobut also non-motionverbs sitand stand.They state that:“This is particularly noticeable in the case of certain verbs of broadmeaning in respect of posture or motion: sit, stand, come, go. These cantake an obligatory adjunct of respect in the form of an –ing clause, withconsequent weakening of the primary meaning of the main verb” (Quirket al, 1985, 506).As examples for these three verbs they provide the following sentences:(10)He stood waiting (patiently).(11)She sat reading (to the children).24
(12)They went hurrying (breathlessly).(13)She came running (in great haste).The examples of the verbs standand sitplus a verb in the ing-form weresearched for in the BNC. This research proved that these are common phraseswidely used in various kinds of texts (in newspapers, biographies, fictional proseetc.). In the BNC, similar sentences were found:(14)He put the books back in the drawer and stood waitingforMrs Hatton to recover. (A73)(15)1924 Harry switched off the engine and sat staringat thebig, grey, stone-built mansion with a sense of shock. (FS1)The fact that Quirk et al admit “verbs of broad meaning in respect of posture ormotion” brings this description close to Goldberg’s VVingPP construction, sinceGoldberg (as will be described in the following chapter) admits into thisconstruction motion verbs with very general meaning. The question of theweakening of the primary meaning of the main verb will also be brieflymentioned in the following chapters.