Ming money early in the ming dynasty the government

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Ming Money:early in the Ming dynasty, the government issued paper moneythis was in denominations equal to strings of copper coinspaper money was convenient for the governmentthis was because it served to facilitate payments to soldiers and officials in the north but the notes were not supported and rapidly fell into disusesmall transactions were carried out with copper cashbut the large payments required the use of ingots of silver these ingots of silver were not coined and were cumbersome.
             with China’s commercial economy expanding, demand for silver soared.from mid-16th century, the Chinese willingness to exchange fine products for silver precipitated a global flow of silver to Chinathis came directly from Japan and New Spain,it came indirectly on the Portuguese and Dutch ships from Europe.inside China, the silver was substituted for taxes in the form of labour services these services were owed to the governmentthis greatly facilitated long distance transactions and commercethe Chinese trading boom had begun and the empire’s prosperity was guaranteed.Mongol & Japanese Foes:Ming security was challenged by Mongol troops in the north and by piracy along the coast. -invasion from the north threatened the dynasty’s existencecoastal incursions cause disruption and economic loss without endangering the empire.after the fall of the Yuan in 1368, Mongol remnants continued to pose a threat in the northsome strategic positions taken by the Ming garrisons had to be abandoned.the Ming military defense in the north combined diplomacy with the use of military force.tribal leaders were granted titles as head of guard unitsthey were encouraged to settle in areas along the border as defensive buffers.
at the same time, Ming military outposts were established in strategic areasthey were supported either by part-time farming or transport of daily supplies from the south.-these elements were not satisfactorythe loyalty of tribal leaders to the Ming ruler was subject to change soldiers in fixed outposts could not match the mobility of the raiders this is because the raiders had exceptional horses.during the founding emperor’s reign, imperial princes joined with the Ming commanders to pursue and harass Mongol leaders.Zhu Di, the Prince of Yan stationed in Beijing, was the most active in this military task.in 1402, he usurped the throne and took reign name Yongle.he subsequently move the capital north to Beijinghe used it as a base from which to lead five major military campaigns into the grasslands.the largest of these campaigns mobilized half a million menthis included more than 10,000 mounted cavalry & larger numbers of foot soldiers it also included transport workers.

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