Item met their expectations on a five point likert

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item met their expectations on a five-point Likert scale with “strongly agree” reflecting thehighest level of service quality and “strongly disagree” indicating the lowest level of servicequality. The questionnaire was developed in English on the basis of insights from interviews.Close-ended questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents. The original aquestionnaire was pre-tested with a few dummy respondents to ensure quality of thequestions in terms of preciseness, conciseness, objectivity and understandability of thequestions. On the basis of feedback from the pre-testing, the original questionnaire has beenmodified for the final and ultimate survey.
Survey MethodThose who agreed to complete the survey were informed of the purpose of the study andassumed anonymity. After a quick screening the questions on whether respondents used theseonline grocery shopping in covid-19 pandemic, interviewers’ proceeded with the surveyquestions through Google form with the respondents were conducted. A total of 100 surveyswere completed, of these. Thus a total of 100 responses were documented and analyzed.Literature ReviewConvenience first appeared in the marketing literature with Copeland’s (1923) classificationof goods. Copeland suggested that by classifying goods according to his tripartite structure(convenience, shopping, or specialty goods), marketers can determine the type of store inwhich the product should appear and the appropriate concentration of distribution.Convenience goods are those lower priced goods which consumers are familiar with andwhich are purchased from easily accessible outlets. Over time, the use of the word‘convenience’ changed from a descriptor of products into its own unique concept – one withemphasis on time buying or time savings (Yale &Venkatesh, 1986). Many researchersincluding Douglas (1976), Strober and Weinberg (1980), Schaninger and Allen (1981), andReilly (1982) facilitated this transition by hypothesising that consumers with greater timeconstraints are more likely to use convenience products and services to save time (Yale&Venkatesh, 1986). As a result of this evolution of meaning, the more complete definitions ofconvenience now contain one common element – the reduction of non-monetary costsassociated with a product (Kelley, 1958; Kotler &Zaltman, 1971; Etgar, 1978;Wolfinbarger&Gilly, 2001; Rohm &Swaminathan, 2004).According to Clulow and Reimers (2009), convenience shopping has been referred to as thereduction or elimination of costs in order for convenience shopping to occur. Prinsloo (2016)also referred to convenience shopping as becoming popular and driven by frequency ofshopping. As it can be noted, time and cost are frequently mentioned as being important forconvenience shopping (Clulow&Reimers, 2009). Other studies defined convenience inrelation to trading hours, parking, way-finding, easy movement, access and supermarket(Anselmsson, 2006; El Adly, 2007). Therefore, for purposes of this study, convenience
shopping refers to consumers buying industrial products at a shop which is convenient in

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Term
Spring
Professor
NoProfessor
Tags
Supermarket

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