philosophic this disorder may be on the part of the soul, an encyclopedic tree which attempted to portray it would be disfigured, indeed utterly destroyed....It is not the same with the encyclopedic arrangement of our knowledge. This consists of collecting knowledge into the smallest area possible and of placing the philosopher at a vantage point, so to speak, high above the vast labyrinth, whence he can perceive the principal sciences and the arts simultaneously. From there he can see at a glance the objects of their speculations and the operations which can be made on these objects; he can discern the general branches of human knowledge, the points that separate or unite them; and sometimes he can even glimpse the secrets that related them to one another. It is a kind of world map which is to show the principal countries, their position and their mutual dependence, the road that leads directly from one to another. This road is often cut by a thousand obstacles, which are known in each country only to the inhabitants or to travelers, and which cannot be represented except in individual, highly detailed maps. These individualmaps will be the different articles of the Encyclopedia and the Tree or Systematic Chart will be its world map.80 The difference between the two historical moments, in other words, is the difference between a mapped space understood, as in the case of the early European explorers, as a periplum("not as land seen on a map/but sea bord seen by men sailing"),81 and a mapped space conceived, as Foucault has shown, as a self-consciously mediative mode of knowledge/power production analogous in its structure to, if not entirely dependent on, the "tables" based on the ontologically, invariably racially, grounded systems of classification that emerged in the Enlightenment. These were thepolyvalent taxonomic tables— best exemplified by the Systema Naturae (1735), Philosophia Botanica (1751), and Species Plantarum (1753) of Linnaeus, the Histoire naturelle (1749) of Buffon, the Nosologie methodique (1772) of Boissier de Sauvages ("the Linnaeus of diseases"),82 and the Families des plantes (1763) of Michel Adanson83 — that differentiated, named, graded, and accommodated an amorphous organic multiplicity within an inclusive structure that miniaturizes and renders visible a larger, otherwise invisible, and "ungraspable" totality.As such, they became the disciplinary model for the classroom, the mass production factory, the penal institution, the medical clinic, the psychiatric hospital, the capitalist system of economic exchange, and the practice of military warfare in the "disciplinary society": The first of the great operations of discipline is... the constitution of "tableaux vivants," which transform the confused, useless or dangerous multitudes into ordered multiplicities.