Dual federalism-From 1790 to 1933, national and state governments maintained a fairly strict division of powers. Political scientists sometimes refer to this system as dual federalism, or “layer cake” federalism.-During the era of dual federalism, the Supreme Court sometimes played the role of referee between the states and the national government. -interstate commerce: trade that takes place between two states or among several states-intrastate commerce: trade that takes place within the borders of a stateCooperative federalism-The Great Depression of the 1930s led to a very different conception of federalism-These New Deal programs ushered in a new era of shared power among national, state, and local governments. -Political scientists refer to this new era as one of cooperative federalism, or “marble cake” federalism.-cooperative federalism: a federal system with considerable sharing of powers among national, state, and local governments; also known as “marble cake” federalism-A key ingredient in marble cake federalism was a mix of federal grants-in-aid programs. -grants-in-aid: funds given by the federal government to state and local governments for specific programsRegulated federalism-Great Society grants often came with strict regulations as to how the money could be spent.-Political scientists, however, prefer the more descriptive term regulated federalism.-regulated federalism: a federal system dominated by the national government;
tightly controlled grants and unfunded mandates are key elements of regulated federalism ]-Although state and local governments welcomed the new influx of federal funds, they were not happy about the federal regulations that came with the money. -unfunded mandate: a regulation or policy imposed by the national government onstate and local governments without adequate federal funds to carry out the policy-Unfunded mandates were attractive to members of Congress, since members could declare that they were solving problems without having to raise taxes to fund the solutions. Instead, the mandates put the burden of paying for those solutions on state and local governments.New federalism-The rapid expansion of federal power in the 1960s alarmed people who valued state and local control. -new federalism: a federal system guided by a policy of returning power to the state and local governments; block grants are a key element of new federalism-Political scientists call these more recent efforts to return power to the states devolution.-devolution: the transfer of power from a central government to a regional or local government-block grants: funds given by the federal government to states without restrictions on how the money should be spent-block grants left states free to decide how best to spend the money they received.
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- Fall '16
- Craig Zupi
- Federalism, Local government in the United States