ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

But not all leaders are managers and not all managers

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Unformatted text preview: But not all leaders are managers, and not all managers are leaders. In other words, some people are designated leaders, i.e. a manager in an organization, or they are leaders simply due to their popularity or charisma. Trait theories of leadership are theories that sought personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits that differentiated leaders from nonleaders. The media has long been a believer in trait theories. They identify people like Ronald Reagan, Nelson Mandela, or Jesse Jackson as leaders, and then describe them in terms such as charismatic, enthusiastic, and courageous. Six traits on which leaders tend to differ from non-leaders are ambition and energy, the desire to lead, honesty and integrity, self-confidence, intelligence, and job-relevant knowledge. The cumulative findings from more than half a century of research lead us to conclude that some traits increase the likelihood of success as a leader, but none of the traits guarantee success. Behavioral theories of leadership are theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders. The difference between trait and behavioral theories lies in their underlying assumptions. If trait theories were valid, then leadership is basically inborn. On the other hand, if there were specific behaviors that identified leaders, then we could teach leadership and possibly have an endless supply of effective leaders. Scientific Management is considered the oldest approach to management. Scientific Management was initially associated with Frederick Taylor, then later Henry Gantt and Frank Gilbreth. An important aspect of scientific management is finding the most efficient way to do a job through scientific analysis . This is the main principle behind scientific management--finding the most efficient way to do a job. Scientific Management is different from many of the other approaches in that it focuses primarily on the physical work instead of higher-level management. The first principle of Scientific Management is scientific study of the work involved. "Scientific study" of the work, involves studying and observing the work to determine the most efficient way to accomplish it. Fredrick Taylor's Scientific Management focused on the bottom of the organization, while Henri Fayol's administrative Management focused on the chief executive's point of view. Henri Fayol's Administrative Management, also known as Classical Management focused on the top of the organization, whereas Scientific Management focused on the bottom, the manual work itself. The most comprehensive and replicated of the behavioral theories have resulted from research that began at Ohio State University in the late 1940s. These researchers sought to identify independent dimensions of leader behavior. Beginning with over 1,000 dimensions, they eventually narrowed the list into two categories that substantially accounted for most of the leadership behavior described by subordinates. They called these two dimensions "initiating structure" and "consideration"....
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But not all leaders are managers and not all managers are...

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