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ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

Scientific management is considered the oldest

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Scientific Management is considered the oldest approach to management. Scientific Management was initially associated with Frederick Taylor, then later Henry Gantt and Frank Gilbreth. An important aspect of scientific management is finding the most efficient way to do a job through scientific analysis . This is the main principle behind scientific management--finding the most efficient way to do a job. Scientific Management is different from many of the other approaches in that it focuses primarily on the physical work instead of higher-level management. The first principle of Scientific Management is scientific study of the work involved. "Scientific study" of the work, involves studying and observing the work to determine the most efficient way to accomplish it. Fredrick Taylor's Scientific Management focused on the bottom of the organization, while Henri Fayol's administrative Management focused on the chief executive's point of view. Henri Fayol's Administrative Management, also known as Classical Management focused on the top of the organization, whereas Scientific Management focused on the bottom, the manual work itself. The most comprehensive and replicated of the behavioral theories have resulted from research that began at Ohio State University in the late 1940s. These researchers sought to identify independent dimensions of leader behavior. Beginning with over 1,000 dimensions, they eventually narrowed the list into two categories that substantially accounted for most of the leadership behavior described by subordinates. They called these two dimensions "initiating structure" and "consideration". Initiating structure refers to the extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of subordinates in the search for goal attainment. It includes behavior that attempts to organize work, work relationships, and goals. The leader characterized as high in initiating structure could be described in terms such as “expects workers to maintain definite standards of performance.” Consideration is described as the extent to which a person is likely to have job relationships that are characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinates’ ideas, and regard for their feelings. This leader shows concern for followers’ comfort, well-being, status, and satisfaction. A leader high in consideration could be described as one who helps subordinates with personal problems, is friendly and approachable, and treats all subordinates as equals.
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Leadership studies conducted at the University of Michigan’s Survey Research Center also came up with two dimensions of leadership behavior that they labeled employee -oriented and production-oriented leader. Employee-oriented leaders were described as emphasizing interpersonal relations and they took an interest in the needs of their subordinates. The production-oriented leaders, in contrast, tended to emphasize the technical or task aspects of the job; their main concern was in accomplishing the group’s tasks.
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