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OPEC implemented the first price increase in October1973.35His largestEuropean consumers agreed. In a national television address in December1973,French President Georges Pompidou nostalgically likened the advent of expensiveoil to “waking up from a too beautiful dream.”36“We have to face the fact that theOPEC syndrome is catching on,” the British Prime Minister, Harold Wilson,worried in a summit meeting of western leaders two years later. “There are alreadyphosphate-pecs, bauxite-pecs, banana-pecs and others.”37At times, the pessimism was apocalyptic. Gerald Ford went so far as to describethe energy dependence of the West as a sort of wrong-side-up imperialism in1974.“Sovereign nations cannot allow their policies to be dictated, or their fate decided”by “artificial price gouging,” he told a Detroit audience.38Kissinger engaged in thesame sort of rhetorical acrobatics. Expensive oil narrowed “opportunities for gov-ernments to control their countries’ own political and economic destiny,” he wrotethe Japanese, British, and French foreign ministers in1974. The crisis threatenedto cause “the moral and political disintegration of the West,” he told the Frenchforeign minister days later.39For some, the straits were just as dire in terms of Third World relations. Theenergy crisis could degenerate into a “North-South economic war,” ColumbiaUniversity economist Richard Gardner warned a joint congressional committeein December1973.40The possibility of a generalized Third World assault on theinternational economic order seemed more likely after the General Assemblyconvened in April1974and the NIEO called for the poor nations to reclaimsovereignty over their natural resources and use national law to limit production,prop up commodity prices, and nationalize foreign businesses. “The global richcountry-poor country dialogue is in bad shape, as evidenced by the outcome of theUN Special Session,” Winston Lord, the State Department’s policy planningdirector, told Kissinger in May.41The energy crisis forced Kissinger to turn his attention to the previously mar-ginalized nationalism expressed internationally by OPEC members and then in the35. Memorandum of Conversation, “Meeting with Oil Company Executives,”26October1973, CFP1970-1973, PET6, RG59, NARA.36. American Embassy Paris to Secretary of State, “President Pompidou’s Interview,”21December1973, CFP1973-1976, ET, RG59, NARA.37. Memorandum of Conversation,16November1975, William Seidman Papers (hereafterWS) box312, GFPL.38. Gerald Ford, “Remarks to the Ninth World Energy Conference,” September23,1974, inJohn T. Wooley and Gerhard Peters, eds.The American Presidency Project, .