Vi fever pyrexia a not harmful if below 39c 1022f in

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VI. Fever (pyrexia) a. Not harmful if below 39C (102.2F) in adults or below 40 (104F) in children b. Heat-loss mechanisms are unable to keep pace with excessive heat production c. Pyrogens elevate body temperature, acting as antigens, and triggering immune system responses. The hypothalamus raises the set point, and the body conserves heat, which causes chills, fevers, and feels cold. The chill phase resolves when the new set point, a higher temperature, is achieved. d. During the next phase, the plateau, the chills subside, and the person feels warm and dry. If the new set point is “overshot” or the pyrogens are removed, the third phase of a febrile episode occurs. The hypothalamus set point drops, initiating heat-loss responses. The skin becomes warm and flushed because of vasodilation. Diaphoresis assists in evaporative heat loss. When the fever “breaks,” the patient becomes afebrile e. VII. Temperature Alterations a. Hyperthermia is an elevated body temperature resulting from the body’s inability to promote heat loss or reduce heat production, resulting from an overload of the thermoregulatory mechanisms of the body. b. Heatstroke ( defined as a body temperature of 40° C [104° F] or more) depresses hypothalamic function and occurs from prolonged exposure to the sun or high environmental temperatures. i. Signs and symptoms include giddiness, confusion, delirium, excessive thirst, nausea, muscle cramps, visual disturbances, elevated body temperature, increased heart rate, and lower BP.
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ii. Vital signs reveal a body temperature sometimes as high as 45° C (113° F), with an increase in heart rate (HR) and lowering of BP. The most important sign of heatstroke is hot, dry skin. c. Heat exhaustion occurs when profuse diaphoresis results in water and electrolyte loss. First aid includes transporting him or her to a cooler environment and restoring fluid and electrolyte balance. d. Hypothermia occurs with exposure to cold. The core body temperature drops, and the body is unable to compensate. i. When skin temperature drops below 34° C (93.2° F), the patient suffers uncontrolled shivering, loss of memory, depression, and poor judgment. As the body temperature falls lower, HR, respiratory rate, and BP fall. The skin becomes cyanotic. ii. Patients experience cardiac dysrhythmias, loss of consciousness, and unresponsiveness to painful stimuli if hypothermia progresses. iii. When you suspect hypothermia, a special low-reading thermometer is required because standard devices do not register below 35° C (95° F) iv. Frostbite occurs when the body is exposed to subnormal temperatures. Ice crystals form inside the cell, and permanent circulatory and tissue damage occurs. VIII. Nursing Process a. Assessment i. Identify your patient’s values, beliefs, current treatments, and expectations regarding fever management. When possible, select the temperature site preferred by the patient.
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  • Spring '17
  • Muka
  • pulse, Orthostatic hypotension, Diaphoresis

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