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Quality for constructed wetlands versus waste

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quality for constructed wetlands versus waste stabilization ponds for wastewater treatment, comparing reduction in biological oxygen demand [Mascie-Taylor, 2003]. Such intervention-, disease- or environmental- specific outcomes makes any comparison of efficiency between interventions difficult if not impossible. Furthermore, there is lack of standard approach to
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valuation and inclusion of cost offsets (direct cost savings), which makes it important to understand what is contained in the cost effectiveness ratio (CER). References: World Health Organization (WHO). Preventing disease through healthy environments. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2006. Noji E, Lee CY. Disaster preparedness. In: Frumpkin H. Environmental health, from global to local, 1st edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2005. Srinivasan S, O’Fallon LR, Dearry A. Creating healthy communities, healthy homes, healthy people: Initiating a research agenda on the built environment and public health. Am J Public Health. 2003 Sep;93(9):1446-50. Kinney PL. Climate change, air quality, and human health. Am J Prev Med. 2008 Nov;35(5):459-67. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. Our Nation's air: Status and trends through 2008. Washington: EPA; 2010. Conteh, L., Sharp, B., Streat, E., Barreto, A. and Konar, S. 2004. The cost and cost-effectiveness of malaria vector control by residual insecticide house-spraying in southern Mozambique: a rural and urban analysis. Tropical Medicine and International Health , 9:125–32. Guyatt, H., Kinnear, J., Burini, M. and Snow, R. 2002. A comparative cost analysis of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying in highland Kenya. Health Policy and Planning , 17:144–53. Konradsen, F., Steele, P., Perera, D., van der Hoek, W., Amerasinghe, P. and Amerasinghe, F. 1999. Cost of malaria control in Sri Lanka. Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 77:301–9. Mascie-Taylor, C., Karim, R., Karim, E., Akhtar, S., Ahmed, T. and Montanari, R. 2003. The cost-effectiveness of health education in improving knowledge and awareness about intestinal parasites in rural Bangladesh. Econ. Hum. Biol. , 1:321–30.
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