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the two higher molecular weight polypeptide chains that make up an antibody moleculeoThe type of heavy chain determines the class of antibody molecule Helper T Cell: Type of lymphocyte programmed to activate B cells and macrophages and also assist other components of adaptive immunityHumoral Immunity: immunity due to B cells and an antibody responseIgA: important in mucosal immunity and found in mucous membranes, saliva, tears, breast milk, etc. IgD: involved in development and maturation of antibody response, but functions in blood have not been clearly defined IgE: important in eliminating parasites, particularly helminths, and in the release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators IgG:accounts for 80% of total serum immunoglobulin and provides longest-term protection of any antibody classoTransported across the placenta into the fetus’ bloodstream protects developing fetus against infections IgM:first class of antibodies produced during a primary response to an antigen
Immature Lymphocytes: lymphocytes that have not fully developed their antigen-specific receptors Immunogen: antigen that induces an immune responseLight Chain: in antibody structure, the two lighter molecular weight polypeptide chainsLymph: clear yellow liquid that contains leukocytes and flows within lymphatic vessels Lymphatic System: collection tissues and organs that bring the population of B cells and T cells into contact with antigens Lymphatic Vessels (Lymphatics): vessels that carry lymph, which is collected from the fluid that bathes the body’s tissues lymphatics Lymphocyte: leukocyte involved in adaptive immunity, includes B cells and T cells Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC): cluster of genes coding for key cell surface proteins important in antigen presentation Memory Lymphocytes: long-lived descendants of activated lymphocytes can quickly become activated when an antigen isencountered againoResponsible for speed and effectiveness of the secondary response MHC Class II Molecules: protein molecules that move to the B Cell surface where they present pieces of antigen for inspection by Helper T Cells Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT):lymphoid tissue present in the mucosa of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts Mucosal Immunity: immune response that protects the mucous membranes, typically involves secretory IgANaïve Lymphocytes: have antigen receptors, but have not yet encountered the antigen to which they are programmed to respond Neutralization: a toxin or virus that is coated with antibodies and cannot attach to cells Peyer’s Patches: collections of lymphoid cells in the gastrointestinal tract, part of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)Primary Lymphoid Organ: organs in which lymphocytes mature thymus and bone marrow Primary Response: