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perhaps the most sinful of its citizens. Voltaire reveals these sins committed by the Church to make the audience aware that it is best to question the authority of the Church and of their messages in preaching. People must not only listen to these high officials, butalso see if they follow their own lessons. Voltaire makes it a point that it is in a person’s best interest to think for oneself, instead of assuming that everything and everyone is perfect.In spite of Pangloss’s teachings, Candide becomes aware of the truth. After seeingan amputated man on the outskirts of town and listening to his story, Candide cries “Oh, Pangloss! thou hadst not guessed at this abomination; it is the end. I must at last renouncethy optimism.” Candide is aware that there is no sufficient reason for the evils that fell upon this man. We continue to see this same skepticism of Candide, especially after he enters El Dorado. “This Pangloss would be puzzle to demonstrated his system . I wish he were here. Certainly, if all things are good, it is in El Dorado and not in the rest of the world.” Again, we see Candide questioning this “all is for the best” philosophy and although Pangloss never retracts this statement “he asserted it still, though he no longer believed it.”Voltaire introduces plenty of skepticism in Candide, but also of rationalism, an important notion of the Enlightenment Period. For example, Pangloss attempts to rationalize everything that happens, from the question of why we have spectacles to why
Perez °an earthquake occurred. His reasoning is uneducated and is simply following the norm of trying to make sense of everything and that everything was made to happen for a reason. For instance, when Candide finds Pangloss suffering from syphilis he states that “it was unavoidable... for if Columbus had not in an island of America caught this disease...we should have neither chocolate nor cochineal.” Instead of being upset, Pangloss willingly accepts that he is dying for a just reason- “so that the more private misfortunes there are the greater is the general good.”In addition to his misfortune, Pangloss also rationalizes the death of James. Although he could have let Candide go after James and save him, he did not, demonstrating to him that “ the Bay of Lisbon had been made on purpose for the Anabaptist to be drowned.” Pangloss is not concerned for his life or that of others, and would rather look for the “sufficient reason of this phenomenon...” In continuing to rationalize the events that occur, Pangloss ignores Candide’s plea for wine and oil when he is injured in the earthquake. With each plea Candide makes, Pangloss attempts to explain that this earthquake is nothing new and begins asking how probable it is that they suffered the same earthquake that shook the ground in America. It is not until Candide