Chert copper faience and terracotta with beautiful

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chert, copper, faience and terracotta, with beautiful figures of animals, such as unicorn bull, rhinoceros, tiger, elephant, bison, goat, buffalo, etc. The standard Harappan seal was a square plaque 2×2 square inches, usually made from the soft river stone, steatite.
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Rajesh Nayak The most remarkable seal is the one depicted with a figure in the centre and animals around. This seal is generally identified as the Pashupati Seal by some scholars whereas some identify it as the female deity. This seal depicts a human figure seated cross-legged. An elephant and a tiger are depicted to the right side of the seated figure, while on the left a rhinoceros and a buffalo are seen. In addition to these animals two antelopes are shown below the seat. Seals such as these date from between 2500 and 1500 BCE and were found in considerable numbers in sites such as the ancient city of Mohenjodaro in the Indus Valley. PotteryA large quantity of pottery excavated from the sites, enable us to understand the gradual evolution of various design motifs as employed in different shapes, and styles. The Indus Valley pottery consists chiefly of very fine wheelmade wares, very few being hand-made. Plain pottery is more common than painted ware. Plain pottery isgenerally of red clay, with or without a fine red or grey slip. It includes knobbed ware, ornamented with rows ofknobs. The black painted ware has a fine coating of red slip on which geometric and animal designs are executed in glossy black paint. Beads and OrnamentsThe Harappan men and women decorated themselves with a large variety of ornaments produced from every conceivable material ranging from precious metals and gemstones to bone and baked clay. While necklaces, fillets, armlets and finger-rings were commonly worn by both sexes, women wore girdles, earrings and anklets. Hoards of jewellery found at Mohenjodaro and Lothal include necklaces of gold and semi-precious stones, copper bracelets and beads, gold earrings and head ornaments, faience pendants and buttons, and beads of steatite and gemstones. All ornaments are well crafted. It may be noted that a cemetery has been found at Farmana in Haryana where dead bodies were buried with ornaments. Maurya period art formsAshoka emerged as the most powerful king of the Mauryan dynasty who patronised the shraman tradition in the third century BCE Buddhism became the most popular social and religious movement. Yaksha worship was very popular before and after the advent of Buddhism and it was assimilated in Buddhism and Jainism. Construction of stupasand viharasas part of monastic establishments became part of the Buddhist tradition. The Mauryan pillar capital found at Sarnath popularly known as the Lion Capital is the finest example of Mauryan sculptural tradition. It isalso our national emblem. Monumental images of Yaksha, Yakhinisand animals, pillar columns with capital figures, rock-cut caves belonging to the third century BCE have been found in different parts of India.

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