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states,” he said at the United Nations. The most recent price increase professed theOPEC nations’ “rightful control over their natural resources.”3The successful negotiations of the oil-producing nations through OPEC overprices, tax rates, and inflation adjustment in the early1970s, according to thisinterpretation, crowned a long campaign to wrest pricing and production controlfrom the imperialistic grip of foreign companies. Even stalwart U.S. allies em-ployed that egalitarian rhetoric. They also infused it with a righteous sense ofhistorical inevitability. “It is only equitable and just that the oil producingcountries” had ended an era in which oil sold “at ridiculously low prices,” theShah of Iran said from the steps of OPEC headquarters in December1973.4“Oil prices have been kept too low for too long,” Saudi Oil Minister AhmedZaki Yamani agreed at the UN General Assembly in1974. Exploiting a common-place allusion to the imperial past, he warned against “any trusteeship-type attemptto fix oil prices” by the United States and its allies.5The so-called “oil weapon” was less of a weapon and more of a net. AlgerianPresident Houari Boumedie´ne became the most visible spokesman and strongestadvocate of that internationalist position. When he called for a special session ofthe UN General Assembly in1974, he emphasized the potential for a “new equi-librium” in the international economy if more nations gained “greater control overtheir natural resources.”6He then told the Sixth Special Session that if the ThirdWorld nations wanted to end their long history of “systematic plundering,” theyneeded “to follow the example of OPEC by uniting and presenting a commonfront facing the rich countries.”7The “militant” call carried the day, the U.S.delegation reported. The OPEC nations successfully depicted themselves as“merely overthrowing the artificially low prices imposed on them.”8The SixthSpecial Session culminated with the Declaration of a New International EconomicOrder (NIEO), which demanded what its Third World signatories depicted as amore just global economy. In particular, it plotted programs of collective action3. UN Office of Public Information (hereafter UNOPI), Weekly News Service (hereafterWNS),5October1973, WS/627, Dag Hammarksjo¨ld Library, New York, New York (hereafterDHL).4. Telegram, American Embassy Vienna to Secretary of State, “Shah’s Press Conference,”29December1973, CFP1973-1976, Electronic Telegrams (hereafter ET), RG59, NARA.5. UNOPI, WNS,19April1974, WS/655, DHL; Secretary to Executive Board, “UNGeneral Assembly—Sixth Special Session,”14May1974, SM/74/114, International MonetaryFund Archives, Washington, District of Columbia (hereafter IMFA).