There are four types of Categorical propositions: 1) Universal affirmative “A”, 2) Universal Negative “E”, 3) Particular affirmative “I”, and 4) Particular negative “O”. A proposition or universal affirmatives take the form: All S are P. E propositions, or universal negations takethe form: No S are P. I propositions, or particular affirmatives take the form: Some S are P. O propositions, or particular negations take the form: Some S are not P (Parsons, 2017). I provided a diagram here because It visually helped me understand how each of the concepts is related and how they work together. Just reading about it
3did not help me. I needed to visually see it to understand. Contraries are pairs of propositions in which both cannot be true, but both can be false. A-statements and E-statements are contraries. Contradictories are pairs of propositions in which both cannot be true, and both cannot be false. A-statements and O-statements are contradictory. E-statements and I-statements are contradictory. Subalternate propositions are particular propositions that must be true if the universal propositions of the same form are also true. This is a one-way relationship from universal to particular statements. I-statements are subalternate to A-statements. O-statements aresubalternate to E-statements. Subcontraries are pairs of statements in which both cannot be false, but both can be true.
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Logic, Syllogism, Categorical proposition, Traditional logic