Information required for growth and reproduction

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Information required for growth and reproduction Dogma- framework for understanding DNA – RNA – proteins Molecular machinery makes the copy of information into a molecule called ribonucleic acid, RNA RNA carries out functions specialized in cell RNA determines what is used to make a protein Protein: forms structural components and promotes chemical reactions that sustain life Organisms have two nutritional needs 1. Acquiring energy from ATP 2. Obtaining molecules to assist in synthesis of DNA, RNA proteins, the cell membrane and other Phylogeny : the actual genealogical relationships of all organisms RNA, essential parts of ribosomes which help cells reproduce and grow Phylogenetic tree : a diagram that describes the phylogeny and relationships of organism being compared and depicts evolutionary history LUCA : last universal common ancestor THREE fundamental groups. (Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya) Eukaryotes = nucleus, multi-cellular Prokaryotes= bacteria and archaea, no nucleus, unicellular Taxonomy : effort to name and classify organisms Taxon : named group Domain : bacteria, archaea and eukarya are the three domains of life Phylum : major lineages within each domain Naming Species Genus : first part, closely related species, homo Species : second term, determines species, species name is depicted by its genus, sapiens Scientific name = genus + species Artificial selection : changes in populations when humans select certain individuals to produce the most offspring (dog) Null hypothesis: what would happen if hypothesis being tested isn’t correct Controls: check for factors that might influence the outcome
CHAPTER 2 Plato and Typological Thinking Every organism is a perfect essence, or type, created by God – unchanging types Key to understanding life was to ignore the shadows and focus on understanding each type of perfect unchanging perfect essence Variations within species are unimportant and misleading Aristotle and the Scale of Nature Species are fixed types organized into a sequence based on increase size and complexity Scale starting from minerals to plants and humans at the top “lower” and “higher” species still modeled today Lamarck and Evolution as a Change Through Time Species are not static but change through time Claimed that simple organisms arise by spontaneous generation and evolve by moving up the scale over time Progressive: always producing larger more complex, “better” animals Change through inheritance of acquired characters Giraffes Darwin and Wallace, Natural Selection Traits vary among individuals in a population because certain traits leave more offspring than others do Population: individuals of the same species that are living in the same area at the same time Population thinking : variations among individuals of a population was the key to understanding the nature of a species Darwin, descent with modification, species from the past are ancestors of those today, and species change through time Fossil record : all the fossils that have been found on earth and described in the scientific literature Extant species : what data supports the claim that they are modified forms of ancestral species Principle of uniformitarianism : geological processes occurring today are similar to the past Sedimentary rocks form at SLOW rate Geologic Time Scale

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