care unit (ICU) and/or cardiac/cardiothoracic units showed a higher nurse staffing level decreased the risk of inhospital mortality by 14%. In conclusion, nurse-to-patient ratios have indeed shown an influence in various patient outcomes, although more research should be conducted to provide further evidence for recommendations of what the optimal nurse-to-patient ratios should be in acute specialist units (Driscoll et al., 2018). This article directly relates to my PICO(T) question in that it reviews studies related to nurse staffing and patient outcomes, and was also published last year. Running head: MILESTONE THREE 3
Griffiths, P., Ball, J., Drennan, J., Dall’Ora, C., Jones, J., Maruotti, A., Pope, C., Saucedo, A. R., and Simmon, M. (2016). Nurse staffing and patient outcomes: Strengths and limitations of the evidence to inform policy and practice. A review and discussion paper based on evidence reviewed for the national institute for health and care excellence safe staffing guideline development. International Journal of Nursing Studies, (63) 213-225. According to Griffiths et al., (2016) a large and increasing amount of studies have reported a correlation between low nurse staffing and adverse outcomes. Despite the overwhelming evidence that can be found, there are limitations and weaknesses in the studies. The article concludes, based on research findings, there is a clear association between nurse staffing and mortality rate. While this article concludes the evidence is extensive, and provides a casual link between nurse staffing levels and patient outcomes in general hospital settings, the evidence is not enough to estimate the costs or consequences of making definitive changes in nurse staffing. While the association between patient outcomes is clear, the economic impact of this remains uncertain (Griffiths et al., 2016) Kuwata, K. (2017). Spread too thin: The case for federally mandated minimum nurse-to- patient ratios in hospitals. Loyola of los angeles law review, 49 (3), 635–659. Retrieved from search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true&db=lpb&AN=123824511&site=eds-live&scope=site Running head: MILESTONE THREE 4
Nurse-patient ratios have been an ongoing and debated topic for years. Nurses are essentially the glue that holds an institution together, but in most hospitals that glue is being spread too thin. Today, in many hospital settings, the number of patients assigned to a nurse often precludes high quality care. Kuwata (2017) provides background on the issue of nurse staffing in the hospital setting while presenting research on the relationship between nurse staffing and health care quality. Another aspect is examining two key reasons why inadequate nurse staffing
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