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ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

Sociometry is an analytical technique for studying

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Sociometry is an analytical technique for studying group interaction. Sociometry seeks to find out who people like or dislike and whom they would or would not wish to work with. This information is gathered through interviews or questionnaires. For instance, employees might be asked (1) Who, within the organization, would you like to associate with in the process of carrying out your job? Or (2) Name several organization members with whom you would like to spend some of your free time. Groupthink occurs when members of a group think similarly and conform to each other's views, often at the expense of ignoring reality. It usually results in decisions being made from a narrow point of view. Members with doubts and alternate ideas do not speak out because dissenting opinions are not tolerated. An organization’s overall strategy, typically put into place by top management, outlines the organization’s goals and the means for attaining these goals. The strategy an organization is pursuing at any given time will influence the power of various work groups, which, in turn, will determine the resources the organization’s top management is willing to allocate to it for performing its tasks. To illustrate, an organization that is closing down major parts of its business is going to have work groups with a shrinking resource base, increased member anxiety, and the potential for heightened intragroup conflict. Organizations have authority structures that define who reports to whom, who makes decisions, and what decisions individuals or groups are empowered to make. This structure typically determines where a given work group is placed in the organization’s hierarchy, the formal leader of the group, and formal relations between groups. So while a work group might be led by someone who emerges informally from within the group, the formally designated leader, who was appointed by management, has authority that others in the group don’t have. When organizations have limited resources , so do their work groups. What a group actually accomplishes is, to a large degree, determined by what it is capable of accomplishing. The presence or absence of resources such as money, time, raw materials, and equipment, which are allocated to the group by the organization, has a significant bearing on the group’s behavior. Every organization has an unwritten culture that defines standards of behavior for employees. After a few months, most employees understand their organization's culture. They know things like how to dress for work, whether rules are rigidly enforced, what kinds of questionable behaviors are sure to get them into trouble and which are likely to be overlooked, and the importance of honesty and integrity. A group’s potential level of performance depends, to a large extent, on the resources its members individually bring to the group. Part of a group’s performance can be predicted by assessing the intellectual and task-relevant abilities of its individual members. A group’s performance is not merely the summation of its individual members’ abilities. However,
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