Transduction This is second stage of cell signaling where the binding of signal

Transduction this is second stage of cell signaling

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Transduction: This is second stage of cell signaling where the binding of signal molecule triggers the receptor protein of the target cell initiating the process of transduction. Response: It is the third stage of cell signaling where the transduced signal finally triggers a specific cellular response. This response may be in the form of cellular activity–such as catalysis by an enzyme (Eg: Glycogen phosphorylase), rearrangement of the cytoskeleton, or activation of specific genes in the nucleus. Signaling molecule binds to a receptor protein that is complementary in shape to a specific site of receptor, causing it to change shape and attaches there, like a key in a lock or a substrate in the catalytic site of an enzyme. Here the signaling molecule behaves as a ligand that generally causes a receptor protein to undergo a change in shape and causes the aggregation of two or more receptor molecules, which leads to further molecular events inside the cell. Where are most receptors found? plasma membrane. What are G proteins? a protein that binds the energy-rich molecule GTP. What are tyrosine kinase receptors? Transfer of phosphate from ATP to tyrosine amino acids in the cytoplasmic domain of the receptor. What are ion channel receptors? these are for specific ion such as Na+, Ca2+, or K+.
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What is mitosis? division of the nucleus to produce 2 genetically identical daughter cells (cloning). What is Meiosis? a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores. What is binary fission? a simple type of cell division in prokaryotes. *some can divide every 20 minutes. What is a genome? an individuals or groups genetic makeup. What is cytokinesis? division of the cytoplasm What is a diploid cell? a cell that contains two sets of chromosomes. What is a haploid cell? a result of the process of meiosis. Our body cells contain 46 chromosomes that exist in pairs. When you produce sex cells, such as eggs and sperm, they contain one from each pair, or 23 chromosomes. This is referred to as the haploid chromosome number (half number), so eggs and sperm are haploid cells. They fuse to make a zygote which then makes another human with 46 chromosomes in cells What is polyploidy? more than a full set of chromosomes (triploid, quadraploid) happens in plants. What is the cell cycle? The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication (replication) that produces two daughter cells. In prokaryotes which lack a cell nucleus, the cell cycle occurs via a process termed binary fission. What are somatic cells? "body cells" (skin, muscle, nerve cells, nothing to do w/ reproduction).
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