Only game in town fallacy abductive fallacy mistake

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Only Game in Town Fallacy Abductive fallacy (mistake in reasoning) If you cant think of any more plausible reasons for something happening it means you take the one that is given, even if it is slightly absurd. Basically, if the theory explains some observation, and if no rival account is available that can do a better job of explaining it, then you should accept the theory. Reductio and absurdum argument form assume the opposite of what you want to prove and show that the assumption leads to a clear ‘absurdity’ (something impossible or obviously false) E.g. PROVE: the government has a right to limit our freedom ASSUME: the government has no right to limit our freedom DEDUCE: therefore, I am free to acquire nuclear arms The conclusion is absurd *So the assumption is wrong and we get our proof* The Limits of Deduction Valid deductive arguments guarantee that the conclusion is true if the premises are There is absolutely no more info in conclusion than was in premises (usually less) We can produce arguments that increase our info only by giving up the deductive argument
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e.g. Polling Asking everyone OR asking some of population
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Philosophy Notes Lecture Week 2 class2 and Week 3 Validity and invalidity limiting causes Validity: an argument is valid if and only if t is impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion to be false Limiting Cases 1. necessarily true conclusions 2. necessarily false conclusions 3. necessarily false premises 4. necessarily true premises Philosophy of Religion Aquinas believes god to be true God is: Personal Omnipotent (All powerful) Omniscient (knows everything) Omni benevolent (all good) -A logical problem which questions the existence of god: Can god make a stone so heavy that he cant lift it??? If so then his power is limited If not then is power is limited 5 Ways of Aquinas WAY 1: Motion 1. In the natural world some objects move 2. in the natural world any movement requires a cause 3. in the natural world causes must come before its effects 4. in the natural world an infinite chain of causes is impossible 5. therefore, there is a first cause of motion 6. this first cause cannot be another moving body so it is something outside the natural world
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WAY 2: General Causation 1. in the natural world some events occur 2. in the natural world no event occurs before it has a cause 3. in the natural world causes must occur before their effects 4. in the natural world a infinite chain of causes is impossible 5. therefore, there is a 1 st event A* 6. A*, must have a cause, but cannot be another event in the world 7. therefore there must be something outside the world that causes the event to occur Problems with the 1 st two ways some premises are questionable consider any event requires a cause Aristotelian and vs. Newtonian physics Aristotle believed premises Not until Newton/Galileo it became false Newtons 1 st law: A body at rest remains at rest and a body in motion continue to move in a straight line
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