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Immediate appraisals depend heavily on the automatic

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Immediate appraisals depend heavily on the automatic system and influ-ence affective, goal, and intention information. Appraising environmentalthreat, for example, occurs effortlessly and without conscious awareness (e.g.,iOhman, Lundqvist,&Esteves, 2001). This immediate appraisal process mayinclude fear and anger-related affect, goals related to aggression, and the for-mation of intentions tocarryout aggression-related acts. Person and situationinputs guide immediate appraisals in ways that are congruent with a person'ssocial learning history (i.e., personality) and current psychological andphysiologicalstate. Because immediate appraisal is effortless and requires fewresources, some aggressive acts occur so fast that it may seem that appraisalhas not even occurred, and indeed some behavioral scripts maybesocloselylinked to the perception ofaparticular stimulus that the behavioral responseis functionally a part of perceiving the stimulus.Reappraisal processes, in contrast, depend on whether people have ade-quate resources and whether the immediate appraisal is judged (automati-cally)to be both important and unsatisfactory. A growing body of literatureTHEGENERAL AGGRESSION MODEL21
suggests, for example, that the ability to override unwanted impulses dependson a limited energy resource that becomes depleted after prior exertion (Gail-liot et al., 2007; Chapter 2, this volume). If a person has recently engaged inan act involving the expenditure of self-regulatory energy, that person will beless likely to engage in reappraisal (DeWall, Baumeister, Stillman,&Gail-liot, 2007; Finkel, DeWall, Slotter, Oaten,&Foshee, 2009; Chapter 6, thisvolume). Likewise, if a person's immediate appraisal indicates that the prob-able outcome is either satisfying or unimportant, then the person will be lesslikely to engage in reappraisal. Other resource limitations, such as time andcognitive capacity, may also preclude reappraisal.Thus, aggression results from the proximate convergence of situationsand personological inputs. Situations can impel or inhibit aggression, whereaspersonological factors enhance or diminish a person's propensity to behaveaggressively. These situational and personological inputs activate affective,arousal, and wgnitive internal states, which in turn influence aggression bymeans of appraisal and decision processes. Once the individual has performedthe impulsive or thoughtful action, the behavior feeds back to the situationand personological inputs to guide the next episodic cycle.AggressionBeforeandAftertheSingleEpisodeCycleIs the GAM stuck in the present? At first glance, the GAM appears tofocus most of its attention on how current internal states determine aggres-sion, neglecting the importance of the past and future. However, the persono-logical input factors bring the past to the present in the form of knowledgestructuresand well-rehearsed cognitive and affective processes that have beeninfluenced by biological factors (e.g., genes, hormones) and past history (seeAnderson&Bushman, 2002, Figure4).

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The Land, GAM, DEWALLAND ANDERSON

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