The area of the Piazza Venezia beneath the monument was at this time enlarged

The area of the piazza venezia beneath the monument

This preview shows page 236 - 240 out of 280 pages.

the setting for an equestrian statue of King Louis XIV. The area of the Piazza Venezia beneath the monument was at this time enlarged by demolishing the Palazzo Torlonia and was dubbed the “Foro Italico,” a forum like the ancient ones nearby.The sculptures on the monument, in particular the equestrian statue so similar to that of Marcus Aurelius in Michelangelo’s Capitoline piazza, carry both ancient imperial and Renaissance connotations. Historical associations elicited by the forms are merged.This is the logic of Sacconi’s historicist method.Ancient imperial glory and the continual revival of Italian culture, first in the Renaissance now in the Risorgimento , are compounded in every element of Sacconi’s work in the service of the state. The Vittoriano was the embodiment of national consciousness, a setting for the liturgy of the nation state enshrined in stone and bronze and renewed in continual ritual. It is the keystone of national symbolism, an instrument of influence that communicates the moral and political messages of the regime, those being to forge collective memory, and establish a historiography and hagiography of its players while counterbalancing ecclesiastical tradition.The statue groups of Thought and Action that flank the entrance frame the whole experience within the philosophical parameters of reasoned contemplation and active intervention.They also draw into the official register the complementary roles of Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi, subsuming the revolutionary theorist and the military activist, problematic political contenders for the king’s central authority, in this telling of Italy’s resurgence. On the first terrace, 236 the architecture of modern italy
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the challenge of tradition, 1750–1900 4.31–4.33 Giuseppe Sacconi, Monument to Vittorio Emanuele II, Rome, 1885–1911. Overview; detail; i nauguration ceremony, 4 June 1911
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the architecture of modern italy 4.34 Emilio Gallori, Monument to Giuseppe Garibaldi, Rome, 1882–95
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dynamic sculpture groups symbolizing Strength, Concord, Sacrifice, and Law, like allegories on papal monuments in Saint Peter’s, record the monarch’s character while they broadcast desirable civic attributes—a call to collective virtue. From the outset, the monument was planned as a pedagogical instrument. Here, at the heart of the capital, an official Italian history would replace personal, local, and regional memory in an open-air civics lesson in the making of Italians on the altar of the nation. With the monument to the king as a centerpiece, a series of other politically appropriate monuments were erected in Rome during the 1880s.An equestrian statue of Garibaldi was placed on the Janiculum Hill after his death in 1882.The location was somewhat removed, near the site of his defense of republican Rome against the French siege thirty-three years earlier.This was the work of parliamentary commissioners who wanted the rambuctious general in a position that would be clearly seen as subservient to the monarch. Even his horse stands demurely. But the sculptor, Emilio Gallori, has Garibaldi throwing a cautionary gaze over his left shoulder toward the cupola of Saint Peter’s.The gesture was
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  • Spring '17
  • Archt. De Veyra

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