Designing aimed at many kinds of professional working

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Designing Aimed at many kinds of professional working in different kinds of organization, this course draws on Simon s (1996) argument that design is the core activity of the professions: Everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones (Simon 1996: 111). Simon made a distinction between the sciences, concerned with studying what is, and design, concerned with what could be. Although it rests on a simplistic definition of the sciences that ignores how are they are produced by a variety of social actors, Simon s work has been influential
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among scholars working in management and organization studies. His work can be read as a reduction of design to problem solving (Hatchuel 2001), which is often contrasted with a constructivist approach advocated by Sch n (1983). Building on Simon but departing from his bounded rationality, Hatchuel and Weil (2009) argue that new concepts and new knowledge result from a process of expansion during design. During a design process, concepts are generated that cannot yet be evaluated as true or 166 New Educati onal Perspectives for Designers and Manag ers not. This expansion of concepts and knowledge is for Hatchuel and Weil and for this M(B)A why design is important for innovation by generating new practices creating value in new sets of relations. The decision to use the verb form designing in the title of the M(B)A course echoes Weick s (1979) exhortation to attend to organizing (the verb) rather than to organizations (the noun). What matters in this curriculum is helping students understand and learn how to do design. An important influence is the notion that designers (should) design for change over time (Tonkinwise 2003) rather than designing objects that are then seen as complete once designing is over, but which nonetheless persist when they break or are discarded. Further, it is not only designers who are involved in designing. From the perspective of anthropology and sociology, many people play important roles in (re)constituting the meanings and effects of designs through their practices (for example, Suchman 1987; Julier 2007; Shove et al. 2007; Ravasi and Rindova 2008). Designs the final form of products and services, for example remain incomplete (Garud et al. 2008). Thus designing never ends and many people are involved in doing it. Better The second term, better, is just as problematic. The aim to make things better in the future is fundamental to design. Science raises the question is this proposition valid or true? , while design asks will it work better? (Jelinek et al. 2008: �� 317 18). But design fields have been slow to take up the challenges and insights from sociology, anthropology, cultural studies and other fields that have emphasized how difficult it is to determine what better might mean, for who and why. If we think of a service, for example, to determine what is meant by designing a better service could involve the
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