Example: Dovidio & Gaertner (2000). CANADIAN CONTEXTAboriginal persons are rated less favorably than whites(because some people explicitly discriminate).When threatened, those who don’t normallyact prejudicially may fail to inhibit theirstereotype. Ifthey receive a threatening messagefrom an aboriginal speaker (arguing for acomprehensive exam beforegraduation, basically an exam you had to take atthe end of the three or four years that you had to pass before you can get your degree), they may rate the speaker as less convincing than a white speaker. IMPLICIT BIASHow can we know what we hide from ourselves? The implicit association test.Implicit Association Test: based upon implicit bias to associate two concepts. Faster reaction times if two categories “fit” better in the same bucket. Notice: the test only shows you have learned a stereotype; it does not show that you are an aversive racist(the knowledge can be activated under threat). Black persons show a negative implicit bias of blacks, although less so than whites. That is, black persons tend to have more positive implicit attitudes toward their groups than do people who are not in the group but that there is still a moderate preference for the more socially valued white group. ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOURFavorable or unfavorable feelings, beliefs, or actions toward an object, idea, or person. Affective Component: feelings or emotions associated with the belief.Cognitive Component: rational thoughts and beliefs that make up the attitude. Behavioral Component: motive to act in a particular way toward the person or object of the attitude.
May be explicit or implicit. COGNITIVE DISSONANCECognitive Dissonance: a state of tension that exists when an individual realizes that he or she holds contradictory attitudes on an issue, or has exhibited behaviour that is inconsistent with an expressed attitude.Resolution: change the behaviour, change the attitude. Changing your attitude is easier to do. CLASSIC EXPERIMENT: FESTINGER & CARLSMITH (1959) Experiment on Motor Behaviour: take a peg out of a board, rotate it a quarter turn, place back in the board, for one hour. Results: Attitude: It was a boring task.Attitude: I am a good, honest person. Behavior: I just lied to a stranger about the task.To reduce dissonance, you have to regain cognitive consistency: $20, I was paid for lying, $1, I must have really enjoyed the task.Example in Children:Step 1: experimenter asks children which toy they liked most.Step 2: child is forbidden to play with the toy and told they would be punished mildly (make the experimenter mad) or severely (make the experimenter mad and all toys would be removed).Question: which group changed their liking of the forbidden toy?WHAT INFLUENCES ATTITUDE CHANGE?