Unit 3.docx

Iodine essential for the production of the thyroid

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iodine: essential for the production of the thyroid hormones, regulate basal metabolism - iron: 60% of iron is in red blood cells and 20% in muscles - manganese: necessary for carb and fat metabolism and for synthesis of cartilage - molybdenum: part of enzyme xanthine oxidase - nickel - selenium: essential for detoxification of certain peroxides; work with vit E to scavenge free radicals - silicon: may be important for bone development - tin: may be required by humans - vanadium - zinc: component of many enzymes Water - 50-60% of human body weight is water - carries nutrients and waste, maintains structure of molecules, participates in chemical reactions, act as a solvent for nutrients, lubricates and cush- ions joints, the spinal cord and a fetus, helps regulate body temp, main- tains blood volume
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- humans require 7 to 11 cups per day Biotin - aka vit H and coenzyme R - essential cofactor for 4 carboxylases that catalyze the incorporation of cel- lular bicarbonate into the carbon backbone of organic compounds Choline - part of several major phospholipids that are critical for normal membrane structure and function - major precursor of betaine, choline is used by the kidney to maintain water balance and by the liver as a source of methyl groups for methionine for- mation - used to produce the important neurotransmitter acetylcholine Phytocehmicals - plants manufacture chemicals known as phytochemical that have multiple functions - some attract insects to encourage fertilization, other provide defences against predators such as viruses and animals - active derivatives extracted from leaves, stems, roots, flowers, and fruits of plants may be classified into 3 main categories: - toxic with no discernible therapeutic uses, ex. nicotine - toxic but useful for treatment of disease when used in controlled amount ex. morphone - chemopreventative activity: compounds useful against diseases such as cancer Appendix A Review of Chemistry p. 542-550
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