3. Desert Everyone should get what he or she deserves. 4. Right That which is owed to persons for their own sakes. Five Rival Principles of Distribution 1. To each an equal share 2. To each according to individual need
3. To each according to personal effort 4. To each according to social contribution 5. To each according to merit Rival Principles of Justice 1. Utilitarians want an economic system that will bring more good to society than any other system. 2. Libertarianism: “a state that taxes its better-off citizens to support the less fortunate ones violates the liberty of individuals by forcing them to support projects, policies, or persons that have not freely chosen to support.” 3. Egalitarianism: each person possesses an inviolability (prohibiting violation) founded on justice that even the welfare of society as a whole cannot override. Peter Singer, (1946) 1. Utilitarian Philosopher The drowning child story illustrates an argument or obligation to assist. 1. First premise: If we can prevent something bad without sacrificing anything of comparable significance, we ought to do it. 2. Second premise: Absolute poverty is bad. 3. Third premise: There is some absolute poverty we can prevent without sacrificing anything of comparable moral significance. 4. Conclusion: We ought to prevent some absolute poverty Robert Nozick (1938-2002) 1. Political Theorist 2. Hess a libertarian Wilt Chamberlain argument is against taxation John Rawls (1921-2002) 1. Political theorist 2. He is an egalitarian Rawls’s Just Society 1. The Original Position Imagine that those who engage in social cooperation choose together, in one joint act, the principles which are to assign basic rights and duties and to determine the division of social benefits.
2. The Veil of Ignorance No one knows his place in society, his class position or social status, nor does anyone know his fortune in the distribution of natural assets and abilities, his intelligence, strength and the like. 3. Two Principles There must be equality in the assignment of basic rights and duties. Social and economic inequalities are just only if they result in compensating benefits for everyone, and in particular for the least advantaged members of society. 4.How would you cut the cake?