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86) List any seven general principles of management and their defining themes as described by Fayol.Answer: (Students may write about any seven of the following points.) Fayol's general principles of management cover a broad range of topics, but organizational efficiency, the handling of people, and appropriate management action are the three general
themes he stresses.1. Division of work — Work should be divided among individuals and groups to ensure that effort and attention are focused on special portions of the task. Fayol presented work specialization as the best way to use the human resources of the organization.2. Authority — The concepts of authority and responsibility are closely related. Authority was defined by Fayol as the right to give orders and the power to exact obedience. Responsibility involves being accountable, and is therefore naturally associated with authority. Whoever assumes authority also assumes responsibility.3. Discipline — A successful organization requires the common effort of workers. Penalties should be applied judiciously to encourage this common effort.4. Unity of command — Workers should receive orders from only one manager.5. Unity of direction — The entire organization should be moving toward a common objective, in a common direction.6. Subordination of individual interests to the general interests — The interests of one person should not take priority over the interests of the organization as a whole.7. Remuneration — Many variables, such as cost of living, supply of qualified personnel, generalbusiness conditions, and success of the business, should be considered in determining a worker's rate of pay.8. Centralization — Fayol defined centralization as lowering the importance of the subordinate role. Decentralization is increasing the importance. The degree to which centralization or decentralization should be adopted depends on the specific organization in which the manager is working.9. Scalar chain — Managers in hierarchies are part of a chainlike authority scale. Each manager, from the first-line supervisor to the president, possesses certain amounts of authority. The president possesses the most authority; the first-line supervisor, the least.Lower-level managers should always keep upper-level managers informed of their work activities. The existence of a scalar chain and adherence to it are necessary if the organization is to be successful.10. Order — For the sake of efficiency and coordination, all materials and people related to a specific kind of work should be assigned to the same general location in the organization.11. Equity — All employees should be treated as equally as possible.12. Stability of tenure of personnel — Retaining productive employees should always be a high priority of management. Recruitment and selection costs, as well as increased product reject rates, are usually associated with hiring new workers.