rotating. This is because enhanced dayside convection produces thick and reflective water clouds nearthe substellar point, reducing the net absorbed stellar flux and cooling the climate, which permitsclement mean surface temperatures closer to the star .Yang et al.  had originally found that HZ planets orbiting F–M stars can remain habitableat distances corresponding to stellar fluxes that could be more than twice (>200%) those predictedfor the classical 1D HZ (e.g., [1,26]).However, synchronously-rotating HZ planets may only becommon around late K- and M-stars , because HZ planets orbiting hotter stars are well outside thetidal-locking radius (e.g., [1,177]). Subsequent GCM studies, focusing on K- and M-stars, then foundthat the rotational and cloud effects in Yang et al.  had been overestimated because of orbital periodscaling issues . Later works with improved radiative transfer  and convection schemes determined that rotation rates and clouds have a much smaller effect on the classical inner edgethan had been previously thought. The Bin et al.  CAM5 simulations found thatSEFFwas only0–50% larger for slow rotators, which translates to a modest ~0–19% decrease in inner edge distance(assuming a stellar luminosity of 0.7 L/Lsunfor theTEFF= 4400 K K-star) (Figure14). However, there isreason to believe that the inner edge contrast between slowly- and rapidly-rotating planets in thesesimulations is still being overestimated. Previous calculations had been performed using idealizedslab ocean GCMs that lack proper equator-pole ocean heat transport. In reality, ocean dynamics shouldreduce the day- to night-side temperature contrast (e.g., ), as may also be expected from theSecond Law of Thermodynamics. Thus, the calculation for K–M-stars should be repeated with modelsthat dynamically couple the atmosphere and ocean. In any case, if 1D and 3D inner edge estimatesare similar to one another for hotter stars, as recent studies suggest (e.g., [1,25,242,243]), it is probablymore likely that Venus lost its water early in its history (e.g., ) rather than later (e.g., [238,244]).
Geosciences2018,8, 28028 of 48slab ocean GCMs that lack proper equator-pole ocean heat transport. In reality, ocean dynamics should reduce the day- to night-side temperature contrast (e.g., ), as may also be expected from the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Thus, the calculation for K–M-stars should be repeated with models that dynamically couple the atmosphere and ocean. In any case, if 1D and 3D inner edge estimates are similar to one another for hotter stars, as recent studies suggest (e.g., [1,25,242,243]), it is probably more likely that Venus lost its water early in its history (e.g., ) rather than later (e.g., [238,244]). Figure 14.Summary of recent 1D and 3D model estimates of the location of the inner edge for mid-K- to M-stars. The Leconte et al.  curve is the nominal inner edge estimate for rapidly-rotating planets, superseding the previous estimate . The remaining limits are various 3D estimates for synchronously-rotating worlds.
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