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3 legal tests to assess compliancedid not eliminated

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-1979: OCR est. 3 legal tests to assess compliance—did not eliminated resistance to Title IX, but it gave women a legal basis for filing lawsuits -1984: opponents of Title IX lobbied President Reagan to overturn the law -1984: Grove City College vs. Bell (ruled that Title IX applied to only programs that directly received money from the federal gov’t) -1984-1987: Title IX was not enforced -1987: Congress passed the Civil Rights Restoration Act —declared that sports programs were a part of the overall educational programs at schools -1992: Franklin vs. Gwinnet County Public Schools (schools must provie athletic positions that match the male/ female proportion of the student body) -1997: Cohen vs. Brown University (schools must provide athletic positions that match the male/female proportion of the student body)
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-2005: coach has the right to sue school after being fired for reporting Title IX violations—protects “whistle- blowers ” who identify inequites 2. the three-pronged tests of Title IX: 1. proportionality test : sport opportunities for male and female students at the institution are “substantially proportionate” to their respective full time undergraduate enrollments 2. Accommodation of interest test : the institution is “fully and effectively” accommodating the interests and abilities of the underrepresented sex. 3. History of Progress test : the institution has a “history and continuing practice of program expansion” for the underrepresented sex - Jackson vs. Birmingham BOE the Birmingham Board of Education transfers Roderick Jackson , a high school PE teacher and girl’s basketball coach to a new school (Ensley High School ) in 1995 he notices the boy’s basketball team practices in nicer facilities & uses nicer equipment & resources than the girl’s team and has a JV team unlike the girl’s team boys received all of the revenue from their games, while girls received none Jackson complained to the school, began receiving negative job performance evaluations. Was fired as the coach, but not of teaching duties Sued the Birmingham Board of Education for firing him as coach bc he voiced hos concern about the unequal treatment of the girls’s team -Pedersen vs. LSU 2000: female students at LSU sue the school for refusing to offer them athletic participation opportunities equal to those offered to males specifically wanted fast pitch softball & soccer team, LSU argued their was not enough interest for those teams. Court said this was stereotypical & paternalistic athletic director gets himself into more trouble with the court by calling a plaintiff “ honey, sweetie, etc” and calling soccer “a more feminine sport etc” verdict: LSU violated Title IX & discriminated against female students. LSU then added the 2 women’s teams 3. Sociology of Title IX -the law can be a powerful tool for making changes in society laws do not exist in a social or cultural vacuum all laws depend on public support & a commitment to support them -laws, like sports are social constructions. Can be changed
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