Century you are welcome to read this section and jot

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centuryYou are welcome to read this section and jot down a few facts about the intellectual foundations for the new era to come through the revolutions and drastic changes in societal life.The foundation of social and economic life that provided the basis of Rococo art and patronage started to relax13
The revolutions in France and America by the late 18thcentury led to the Enlightenment due to the change in political, social, and economics. Philosophy and ScienceEnlightenment thinkers rejected faith in favor of reasonChampioned an approach of the acquisition of knowledge through observation and scientific experimentationNewton and LockeNewton insisted on empirical proof of his theories and encouraged others to avoid metaphysics and the supernatural realms. Locke-“enlightenment gospel”, developed the doctrine of empiricism-knowledge comes through sensory perception of the material world. Asserted humans were born good no cursed. Philosophes (this is how the French intellectuals were called at that time)The ills of humanity could be cured by applying reason and common senseThey were convinced the church and state put irrational limits on political and intellectual freedom, and humanity could advance by degrees to a happier state than it had ever knownby accumulating and propagating knowledge. DIDEROT - * greatly advanced the Enlightenment’s rationalistic and materialistic thinking. He became editor of the pioneering Encyclopédie, a compilation of articles written by more than a hundred contributors, including all the leading philosophes. The Encyclopédie was truly comprehensive (its formal title was Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts) and included all available knowledge—historical, scientific, and technical as well as religious and moral—and political theory. (The Encyclopédie’s 21st-century descendant is Wikipedia, which has a similar goal of collecting all that is known and making that knowledge universally available.) The first installment of Diderot’s 35-volume illustrated encyclopedia appeared in 1751 and the last in 1780VOLTAIRE - *François Marie Arouet, better known as Voltaire (1694– 1778), was the most representative figure—almost the personifi- cation—of the Enlightenment spirit. Voltaire was instrumental in introducing Newton and Locke to the French intelligentsia. He hated, and attacked through his writings, the arbitrary despotic rule of kings, the selfish privileges of the nobility and the Church, religious intolerance, and, above all, the injustice of the French ancien régimeINDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 14
Wright of Derby A philosopherFirst iron bridge in the world built in England. 1776-1779“The Iron Bridgeat Coalbrookdale in Shropshire, UK, was the first bridge (or indeed civil engineeringstructure) in the world to be made entirely of cast iron. East Shropshire was an important industrial area thanks to coal deposits near the surface, and it was here that Industrial Revolution was born. () “NATURAL” ART

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