Bleeding kansas 1855 1861 a a series of violent

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13.Bleeding Kansas (1855-1861)
a.A series of violent political confrontations in the United States involving anti-slavery Free-Staters and pro-slavery "Border Ruffian" elements in Kansas between 1854 and 1861.b.The Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854 called for "popular sovereignty"—that is, the decision about slavery was to be made by the settlers (rather than outsiders). It would be decidedby votes—or more exactly which side had more votes counted by officials. At the heart of the conflict was the question of whether Kansas would allow or outlaw slavery, and thus enter the Union as a slave state or a free state. Pro-slavery forces said every settler had the right to bring his own property, including slaves, into the territory. Anti-slavery "free soil" forces said the rich slaveholders would buy up all the good farmland and workthem with black slaves, leaving little or no opportunity for non-slaveholders.c.The term "Bleeding Kansas" was coined by Republican Horace Greeley, editor of the New York Tribune; its violence indicated that compromise was unlikely and thus it presaged the Civil War14.William Walker (1824-1860) 1856-1860a.An American adventurer, filibuster (The practice of invading small countries or states with the intention of causing independence) and soldier who became President of Nicaragua in 1856-1857.He tried to gain control over most of Central America, but failed. He was executed by firing squad in 1860 in Honduras.b.Nicaragua was in the throes of a civil war between the cities of Granada and León to determine which city would have more power. Walker was approached by the León faction (which was losing), and soon rushed to Nicaragua with some 60 well-armed men.Upon landing, he was reinforced with another 100 Americans and almost 200 Nicaraguans. His army marched on Granada and captured it in October, 1855. As he was already considered supreme General of the Army, he had no trouble declaring himself president. In May, 1856, the Franklin Pierce administration officially recognized Walker's government.c.In early 1857 the Costa Ricans invaded, supported by Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador as well as Vanderbilt's (an enemy of Walkers after Walker revoked his shipping rights in Nicaragua) money and men, and defeated Walker's army (which had been thinned by disease and defections) at the Second Battle of Rivas. Walker was forced to return once again to the United States.d.Back in the United States, Walker was greeted as a hero, particularly in the south. He wrote a book about his adventures, resumed his law practice, and began making plans totry again to take Nicaragua, which he still believed to be his. After a few false starts, including one in which US authorities captured him as he set sail, he landed near Trujillo,Honduras, where he was captured by the British Royal Navy. The British already had important colonies in Central American in British Honduras (now Belize) and the Mosquito Coast (in present-day Nicaragua) and they did not want Walker stirring up rebellions. They turned him over to Honduran authorities, who executed him by firing
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