Tends to be severe and quite rare ●May be present in psychotic disorders or diagnosed alone, and may include: ○Stupor = a state of near-unconsciousness or insensibility, mutism = inability to speak, maintaining the same pose for hours ○Opposition or lack of response to instructions - tells man to NOT shake hand but he still does anyway ○Repetitive, meaningless motor behaviors ○Mimicking others’ speech or movement Psychotic Disorders Due to Other Causes ●Psychosis may occur as the result of substance use, some medications and some medical conditions ●Knowing these causes is important for treatment ○Address underlying cause ●For example, abuse of amphetamines, alcohol, and cocaine can cause delusions, as can cause brain tumors. ●Include: ○Substance/medication-induced psychotic disorder ○Psychotic disorder associated with another medical condition Brief Psychotic Disorder
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●Positive symptoms of schizophrenia (e.g., hallucinations or delusions) or disorganized symptoms ●Lasts less than 1 month ●Will regain their previous ability to function well in day-to-day activities ●Briefest duration of all psychotic disorders ●Typically precipitated by trauma or stress Schizophrenia: Statistics ●Onset and prevalence of schizophrenia worldwide ○About 0.2% to 1.5% (or about 1% population) ○Often develops in early adulthood ○Can emerge at any time; childhood cases are extremely rare ●Schizophrenia is generally chronic ((of an illness) persisting for a long time or constantly recurring. ○Most suffer with moderate-to-severe lifetime impairment ○Life expectancy is slightly less than average ■Increased risk for suicide ■Increased risk for accidents ■Self care may be poorer ●Schizophrenia affects males and females about equally ○Females tend to have a better long-term prognosis (get better) ○Onset slightly earlier for males ●Cultural factors ○Psychotic behaviors not always pathologized ○Yet schizophrenia is found at similar rates in all cultures Course of Schizophrenia ●Prodromal phase ○85% go through this stage ○1-2 years before serious symptoms start to show themselves ○Less severe, yet unusual symptoms: -Ideas of reference = thinking insignificant events relate directly to them) -Magical thinking = believing they have special abilities such as being clairvoyant or telepathic -Illusions = feeling the presence of another person when they are alone -Isolation -Marked impairment in functioning -Lack of initiative, interests, or energy Causes of Schizophrenia:Findings From Genetic Research ●Family studies ○Risk increases with genetic relatedness
-E.g., having twin with schizophrenia incurs greater risk than having uncle with schizophrenia.
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