During pregnancy blood volume increases about 1500 mL 40 to 50 Increase in

During pregnancy blood volume increases about 1500 ml

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During pregnancy blood volume increases about 1500 mL- 40 to 50% Increase in blood volume occurs for 3 primary reasons: 1. To meet the needs of hypertrophied vascular system of enlarged uterus 2. To adequately hydrate maternal and fetal tissues 3. To provide a fluid reserve for blood loss during childbirth Calcium and Vitamin D 1000 mg/day in pregnant and pre-pregnant 1300 mg/day in pregnant adolescents Cereals, egg yolks, liver, and seafood Iron and Vitamin C Iron: Pre-pregnant 18 mg/day, 30 mg/day for pregnant women starting at 12 weeks gestation o Ready to eat cereals, white beans, lentils, spinach, kidney beans, lima beans, soybeans, shrimp, and prune juice, red meats, organ meats o Watch for constipation, black tarry stools, nausea and abdominal cramping when supplementing iron o Increases RBC- need more iron to help with binding Vitamin C: 80-85 mg o Red and green sweet peppers, oranges, kiwi fruit, grapefruit, strawberries, Brussels sprouts, cantaloupe, broccoli, sweet potatoes, tomato juice, cauliflower, pineapple and kale Folic acid Non-pregnant: 400 mcg/day Pregnant: 800 mcg/day o Dark leafy greens, asparagus, Brussels sprouts, soybeans, liver, root vegetables, beans, and orange juice
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3 Weight Gain: Underweight (<19.8): 28-40 lbs . Normal weight (<19.8-26): 25-35 lbs. Overweight (<26-29): 15-20 lbs. Obese (>29): 15+ lbs. Preeclampsia: decreased blood supply to the maternal organs and to the developing fetus and may result in preterm birth, premature rupture of membranes, maternal organ damage, thrombocytopenia, intrauterine growth, and an altered acid-base balance in the fetus Planning Daily Food Intake Include a variety of nutrient-dense foods and fluids while limiting saturated and trans fats, cholesterol excessive sugar, salt, and alcohol Iron-rich foods or iron-fortified foods Include vitamin C to enhance absorption of iron Include folic acid through consumption of fortified foods or supplemental folic acid Eating Disorders Pica: consumption of clay, dirt, cornstarch, and ice o Occurs commonly in developmentally disabled persons o Caused by nutritional deficiencies, cultural and familial factors, stress, low socioeconomic status, and biochemical disorders o Deficient in iron, calcium zinc, thiamine, niacin, vitamin C, and vitamin D Exercise and Travel Focus on strengthening muscles without rigorous aerobic activity that may cause complications o Increased body temperature affects baby because the fetus is unable to reduce body temperature through perspiration or other means and instead must rely on the mother’s body for temp regulation On airplane: engage in slow, deep breathing, make circling motions with her feet and practice alternating contracting and relaxing different muscle groups o Drink plenty of water and take brief walks each hour to minimize risks of DVT Fatigue First trimester: increase in production of progesterone Second trimester: increased energy and endurance Third trimester: enlarging fetus causes the maternal diaphragm to be upwardly displaced, decreasing lung expansion Meds, OTCs, and herbal remedies
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