The stages are described from the paper as follows

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The stages are described from the paper as follows. Table 3.1: The original matrix
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A Design Implementation Matrix Products Environment Information Finished products Components Buildings Machines Equipment Internal External Audit Advise Plan Specify Supervise Demonstrate Implement Silent Design 59 to audit. An attempt should be made to audit every product with the view to �� ensuring that it adheres as closely as possible to the design principles of the organization. to advise. It will certainly be useful prior to or during an audit procedure �� to offer advice on design modifications which will help this happen. to plan. Better still, as part of the general planning process for all �� products, attempts should be made to establish design planning guidelines. to specify. As a more rigorous planning procedure for certain products it �� will be desirable to establish actual specifications for the design of those products. to demonstrate. As a way of demonstrating the effectiveness of a �� specification, it is sometimes useful to design directly and make either a model of the product, or the first of a production run, or a fully completed detail. (An example might be the first of a chain of shops for which a specification has been established.) to implement. The deepest level of involvement: actually undertaking the �� implementation yourself. Employed as an analytical tool, the original matrix was our first formal step in developing a picture of the use of design in organizations. It also permitted those organizations who were considering developing the strategies for design to understand how broad the scope for design could be. In dealing with the operational and organizational issues as they interact with the design process, the literature on complex and developing organizations has provided some useful definitions which have assisted in clarifying our task. One such is a working guideline of the roles of purposes of people within an organization, taken from Lawrence and Lorsch (1969). An organisation is the coordination of different activities of individual contributors to carry out planned transactions with the environment. Lawrence and Lorsch also describe an organization as a system of differentiated units which require integration and the view of the individual contributor as a complex problem solving system himself (1969). This in particular is appropriate to the issues that emerged in the organizations that were talked to during the pilot study. In all cases the authors asked the organizations to direct them to those people they considered to be the most active participants in design projects. This was to enable the authors to gain insight into the way the organization and the
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individual conceptualized their activity over design. On analysing the data received by using the original matrix, the authors discovered that the matrix itself needed development.
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