L08b - NATS1610-fw1718 - UPDATED - Mitochondria and Cell Metabolism (1).pdf

9 cellular metabolism cells need energy for their

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9 Cellular Metabolism - Cells need ENERGY for their activities n Metabolism - intracellular chemical reactions n Degradation, synthesis, transformation of small organic molecules n Linear or cyclic reactions n Enzymes play a vital role in metabolism n Mostly proteins, Catalytic n Optimum pH and temperature n Interact with substrate at the active site n Coenzymes - enzyme “helpers” n molecules that move hydrogen atoms & electrons to the sites of chemical reactions in cells n e.g., the nucleotides NAD + , FAD Image from page 59 – from Starr and McMillan, Human Biology , 10ed, Brooks Cole
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10 two substrate molecules substrates contac/ng ac/ve site of enzyme ac/vesite substrates briefly bind /ghtly to enzyme ac/ve site product molecule enzyme remains unchanged by the reac/on Fig. 3.23 - from Starr and McMillan, Human Biology , 10ed, Brooks Cole Enzymes & substrates fit together physically When substrate molecules contact an enzyme’s active site , they BIND to the site for a brief time and form the PRODUCT - The ACTIVE SITE brings the substrate molecules CLOSE enough so they INTERACT to FORM the product - the enzyme’s SHAPE changes - The product is RELEASED When the product molecule is released , the enzyme goes back to its previous shape The enzyme remains unchanged by the reaction
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ENZYMES are proteins. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions by bringing substrate molecules together to interact 11 Fig. 2.23a and Fig. 2.23b, From Goodenough and McGuire, Biology of Humans, 2ed, Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. Summary: (see quiz after animation)
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Metabolic Pathways and ATP 12
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Two main types of metabolic pathways n ANABOLIC processes n Favour the SYNTHESIS of molecules for building up organs and tissues n Often CONDENSATION/DEHYDRATION reactions(covered in more detail later) n CATABOLIC processes n Favour the BREAKDOWN of complex molecules into smaller more simple ones n Often HYDROLYSIS reactions (covered in more detail later) n Energy source for the body is the chemical energy WITHIN THE CHEMICAL BONDS of ingested food n Must be converted into a useable form of energy n i.e., ATP - Adenosine triphosphate n THREE phosphate groups – joined by “phosphate bonds” n The HIGH ENERGY phosphate bonds of ATP “store ” energy n Energy is RELEASED when phosphate bond breaks (see next slide) n ATP is the cell’s energy currency 13 Adenine Ribose 3 phosphate groups
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ATP/ADP Cycle ENERGY FOR CELL ACTIVITIES n The chemical reactions that sustain the body depend on energy that cells “capture” when they produce ATP n Cells use ATP constantly and so ATP must be always replenished n High energy bonds shown as “~” in figure below 14 Image from: Starr & Taggart, Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life , 10ed, Brooks Cole Fig. 3.19 - from Ireland, Visualizing Human Biology , 4ed, Wiley
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Photosynthesis, Carbohydrates, Glucose, and Molecular Energy 15
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16 PHOTOSYNTHESIS n Process by which carbon dioxide and water are converted (with the aid of light energy) INTO CARBOHYDRATES (mostly sugars) n By green plants, algae, protists, and some bacteria (these are the primary producers) Primary Producers n
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