Love of warfareonly wealthy can afford weapons bc it

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c. Love of warfare—only wealthy can afford weapons b/c it was very expensive d. Arete excellence is displayed i. Hector, Prince of Troy 5. The Rise of the Polis a. 750 BC—The Archaic Period b. Independent city-state i. Quite small—ruled by tyrant 1. Acropolis —easily defendable fortress against invaders/ build high up 2. Agora —marketplace/ where citizens assembled for various activities ii. Focus of loyalty 1. Religious loyalty 2. Political loyalty iii. Unique community of citizens 1. They identify w/ their city-state and polis NOT as Greek 6. Early Political Developments a. Citizens—general assembly b. Smaller councils—aristocracy c. Democracy— demos people d. Who was a citizen? i. Small number e. Divisions of polis: i. Residents w/out political rights—women, children, and people from that moved from other city states ii. Slaves--servants iii. Citizens—free adult males f. Soldiers- i. Aristocracy ii. Small armies iii. The Hoplite Revolution- 1. Hoplite—Greek solider iv. The Phalanx - very dense formation of Hoplite soldiers 1. Key to Greek warfare
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2. Maintaining discipline and morale v. Expansion of political rights 1. Expands participation in the army which expands the political rights of citizens 7. The Dawning of The Classical Age a. Sparta- i. Peloponnesian Peninsula 1. Messenia Revolt a. Helots—slaves b. Lycurgan reforms—create a military system of Agoge c. Agoge—process of militarizing society 2. Agoge--Militarized Society a. Infants—examined for strength and hardiness/ if not they are left in nature to die b. At 7—taken from home c. At 20—marriage/ still had to live in barracks w/ fellow soldiers d. At 30—retirement ii. Spartan Political System- 1. Dual Kingship 2. Gerousia - council of elders, made of 28 men over the age of 60 (plus 2 kings)/ proposed legislation which was approved by the Apella (assembly of all male citizens) by banging on their shields 3. 5 Ephors - elected annually, check on the king’s power (they resided as judges if a king broke the law)/ they also supervised the Agoge and “rejected” any malformed babies b. Athens - i. Monarchy replaced by aristocracy ii. Ecclesia—general assembly iii. Areopagus= Council of Aristocrats iv. Solon —council of 400 1. Famous Athenian poet 2. Gets ride of debt-slavery and all financial debts v. Tyrant— 1. Pisistratus and Hippias (son of Pisistratus) vi. Cleisthenes’ Reforms—founder of Athenian democracy 1. Cleisthenes- a. Father of democracy b. Enlarged the citizen population c. Created a new council –Council of 500 d. Expanded the authority of the Ecclesia e. Board of 10 Generals—has 10 generals vii. Ecclesia or “Assembly of the People” = assembly of all Athenian male citizens
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viii. Ostracism - (introduced by Cleisthenes) all the members are given a rock/ put name of citizen you don’t like on rock/ gather all rocks and person w/ most rocks is thrown out of Athens for 10 years 1. Avoids the tyrant issue 2. Aka “black balling someone” c. The Persian War Part 1- (Greeks won over Persians) i.
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