Theory predicts this should only hold for situations

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Theory predicts this should only hold for situations of competition & status, resources, related to reproduction Blood levels of 5 men confined to a boat for 14 days was correlated with their place in the dominance ranking Problem of causation Winning a game increases T
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of female prisoners and behavior
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deer stags
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Testosterone & Competition Winning a game increases T in males Increase in mood as well Highest for contact sports but still there for chess Highest rises in T if the attribution was that the win was from skill or technical ability rather than chance Thought contact sports trigger physical competition mechanisms Losing a game decreases T in males Decrease in mood as well Interaction with attributions Both losing players decrease T but it is less of a decrease if the player makes external attributions to why the other team won Bad calls by the referee Bad luck External attributions may be protective against lowering T and associated feeling bad Some evidence that the level of T before the game (which rises in anticipation) can be predictive of whether or not they win Interaction with others Both basketball and soccer fans show a small decrease in T if their team loses and a small increase if their team wins
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testosterone of sports fans
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testosterone increases future wins
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predicts that testosterone will be elevated only during specific times of an individual’s life history
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Just the Right Amount…
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Agression/Testosterone Link Problems with determining causality with the agression/testosterone direction 3 rd variables Example--Violent prisoners may differ in many ways from less nonviolent prisoners (e.g., in stress, family history, etc.) Still correlational and not a random sample Cannot imply causation
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Genetic Influences Are people who are more aggressive genetically different from those who are less aggressive? Can breed animals to be more or less aggressive
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Genetic influences Twin studies Based on the assumption that identical twins should show greater similarity on any trait that is presumed to be inherited than fraternal twins Identical twins = twice as likely as fraternal twins to have similar degree of criminal activity Christiansen: 7000 twins born in Denmark 1881-1910 35% identical vs. 13% fraternal showed similarity in serious criminal activity
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