Conclusion – male and female students on average differ intheir grade expectation for MKF2121Mission accomplished?

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How do you really “answer” a research question? The
ritualistic
dance of
hypothesis testing
1. Problem Definition
2. Clearly State the
Null and Alternative Hypotheses
3. Choose the relevant statistical test
4. Calculate p-value
5. Is p-value<0.05?
No
Do not reject null
Reject null hypothesis
Yes
52
1.
Problem definition
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You have done this already, i
.e., your research question
•
do male and female students differ on average in
their grade expectation for MKF2121?
2. Clearly state null and alternative hypothesis
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54
•
Null hypothesis (H
0
) (no difference/relationship)
–
no difference, or no association between variables
–
if null hypothesis is not rejected, no changes will be made
Example. H
0
: Male and female students on average do not differ in
their grade expectation for MKF2121
•
Alternative hypothesis (H
1
) (what would be true if the null
hypothesis is wrong)
–
difference or association is expected
–
accepting the alternative hypothesis will lead to changes in
opinions or actions
Example. H
1
: Male and female students on average differ in their
grade expectation for MKF2121
Make sure that your H
0
and H
1
leave nothing out!

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55
Some more examples of RQ and their hypotheses
RQ 1 – is there an association between customer
satisfaction with staff friendliness and overall satisfaction
with Crown casino?
•
H0 – There is no association between customer satisfaction with
staff friendliness and overall satisfaction with the casino
•
H1 – There is an association between customer satisfaction with
staff friendliness and overall satisfaction with the casino
RQ 2 – is there a difference in customer satisfaction
between frequent casino visitors and casual casino
visitors?
•
H0 – There is no difference in customer satisfaction between
frequent and casual visitors
•
H1 –frequent and casual visitors exhibit different levels of
customer satisfaction
3. Choose the relevant statistical test
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Hypothesis
Testing
Test of Association
(relational RQ)
Test of Differences
(comparative RQ)
Means
Proportions
•
Different forms of t test
•
Cross tabulation
•
Correlation
•
Multiple regression
4
. Calculate p-value (i.e., run the test in SPSS)
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•
P-value = 0.868 > 0.05, therefore we do not reject null hypothesis
•
Conclusion
: Male and female students on average do not differ in
their grade expectation for MKF2121
Group Statistics
Q9
N
Mean
Std.
Deviation
Std. Error
Mean
Q7
Male
37
77.38
7.236
1.190
Female
69
77.13
7.300
.879
Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for
Equality of
Variances
t-test for Equality of Means
F
Sig.
t
df
Sig. (2-
tailed)
Mean
Differen
ce
Std.
Error
Differen
ce
95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference
Lower
Upper
Q7
Equal variances
assumed
.215
.644
.167
104
.868
.248
1.483
-2.693
3.189
Equal variances not
assumed
.168
74.306
.867
.248
1.479
-2.699
3.195

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20
Some key terms you will see a lot in the next few weeks
58
•
Null
vs.
alternative
hypotheses
•
Reject
or not reject the null hypothesis
•
P-value
Recap: the 5‐step process of hypothesis testing
1. Problem Definition
2. Clearly State the