Conclusion – male and female students on average differ intheir grade expectation for MKF2121Mission accomplished?
10/04/201918How do you really “answer” a research question? Theritualisticdance ofhypothesis testing1. Problem Definition2. Clearly State the Null and Alternative Hypotheses3. Choose the relevant statistical test4. Calculate p-value5. Is p-value<0.05?NoDo not reject nullReject null hypothesisYes521. Problem definition4/10/201953You have done this already, i.e., your research question•do male and female students differ on average in their grade expectation for MKF2121?2. Clearly state null and alternative hypothesis4/10/201954•Null hypothesis (H0) (no difference/relationship)–no difference, or no association between variables–if null hypothesis is not rejected, no changes will be madeExample. H0: Male and female students on average do not differ in their grade expectation for MKF2121•Alternative hypothesis (H1) (what would be true if the null hypothesis is wrong)–difference or association is expected–accepting the alternative hypothesis will lead to changes in opinions or actionsExample. H1: Male and female students on average differ in their grade expectation for MKF2121Make sure that your H0and H1leave nothing out!
10/04/20191955Some more examples of RQ and their hypothesesRQ 1 – is there an association between customer satisfaction with staff friendliness and overall satisfaction with Crown casino?•H0 – There is no association between customer satisfaction with staff friendliness and overall satisfaction with the casino•H1 – There is an association between customer satisfaction with staff friendliness and overall satisfaction with the casinoRQ 2 – is there a difference in customer satisfaction between frequent casino visitors and casual casino visitors?•H0 – There is no difference in customer satisfaction between frequent and casual visitors•H1 –frequent and casual visitors exhibit different levels of customer satisfaction3. Choose the relevant statistical test4/10/201956HypothesisTestingTest of Association(relational RQ)Test of Differences(comparative RQ)MeansProportions•Different forms of t test•Cross tabulation•Correlation•Multiple regression4. Calculate p-value (i.e., run the test in SPSS)4/10/201957•P-value = 0.868 > 0.05, therefore we do not reject null hypothesis •Conclusion: Male and female students on average do not differ in their grade expectation for MKF2121Group StatisticsQ9NMeanStd. DeviationStd. Error MeanQ7Male3777.387.2361.190Female6977.137.300.879Independent Samples TestLevene's Test for Equality of Variancest-test for Equality of MeansFSig.tdfSig. (2-tailed)Mean DifferenceStd. Error Difference95% Confidence Interval of the DifferenceLowerUpperQ7Equal variances assumed.215.644.167104.868.2481.483-2.6933.189Equal variances not assumed.16874.306.867.2481.479-2.6993.195
10/04/201920Some key terms you will see a lot in the next few weeks58•Nullvs. alternativehypotheses•Rejector not reject the null hypothesis•P-valueRecap: the 5‐step process of hypothesis testing1. Problem Definition2. Clearly State the