Many other “date rape drugs” out there (e.g. Rohpynol)How should colleges deal with sexual assault accusationsShould sexual assault accusations be dealt with by college disciplinary procedures (in which case suspension or expulsion is most severe punishment)Law enforcement officials Services are available for rape victimsGetting medical attentionAlthough all healthy care providers are required to report to the police, the victim is not obligated to do soPhysical and psychological injuries must be assessedCounseling (may help “victims” of rape become “survivors”Rape can inflict long-lasting psychological injuryDenial of a person’s autonomy in a very intimate aspect of their lifeRape trauma syndrome (can also be marked by severe sexual problems)Partners, family and friends can offer practical and emotional supportoHelp by creating a culture that rejects rape (not joking about it)TherapyRecovery from rape does not happen over night, but most people are eventually able to recover (“survivors”)Male victims have special concernsLittle or no support from peersMay feel guilty themselvesMay develop problems revolving around their sexual orientationRape in prisons (concept of power not sexual desire)Rape laws have become more protective of victimsCountries differ in their thoughts of rape and prosecution Prior to 1970soWomen may be viewed as having voluntarily placed themselves at the man’s disposal (e.g. prostitutes, couples)oRape laws previously used to protect “omen of virtue”oDemonstrating a woman was of “unchaste character” was an acceptable form of defense for the perpetrator
Reforms began in 1970soRape shield laws – protect the rape victims (e.g. by limiting the introduction of evidence about their prior sexual behavior)oNo longer necessary to prove that coitus occurredMajority of Rapists go unpunishedoAbout half of all men arrested for rape are convictedWhy do man rape?Different perspectivesEvolutionary rootsoHuman capacity for rape is either an adaptation itself or a byproduct of adaptive traits (rape’s reproductive costs and benefits)Social ForcesoRape is a learned behavioroUS society as a rape prone culture (due to dominant patriarchal ideologyThink about rape and military policyRead box 16.3 on “comfort women”Theorists have debated whether rape is sexualoIt seems likely that sexual desire play a significant roleCharacteristics of RapistsLower socioeconomic status, less education, worse relationships with parents, self centered, lower capacity for empathy (definitely not conclusive evidence however)Intervention Programs are of Uncertain ValuePrograms may reduce recidivism but effect is smallRape prevention programs aimed at adolescents have been developedoBut outcome isn’t looking too promising, although this may bebecause the programs are aimed at to old of an age groupoKey step in preventing violence among adults: Promote empathy!