of the family and to the ruler ● Neo- Confucianism ○ Evolved in China between 770 and 840 ○ Combined rational thought with more abstract ideas of Daoism and
Buddhism ○ Emphasized ethics rather than the mysteries of God and nature ○ Popular in countries in China’s orbit, Japan, Koreas, and Vietnam Comparing Japan, Korea, and Vietnam Japan ● Separated from China by sea so it could control interactions with other countries, Chinese culture impact: Buddhism and Confucianism promoted in Japan, Japan emulated Chinese traditions in politics, art, and literature ○ However, Japanese writers also moved in new directions. For example, in the 11th century, a Japanese writer composed the world’s first novel. ● Feudalism ○ For hundreds of years, Japan didn’t have a centralized government ○ Aristocrats, the daimyo , battled for control of land, while the majority of people worked as rice farmers ○ Similar to European feudalism, little social mobility, both built upon heredity hierarchies ■ Peasants known as serfs were born into lives of economic dependency, samurai were born into their roles as protectors and daimyo were born into lives of privilege ○ Compared to Europe Japans daimyo had much more power than the nobility in Europe ○ Europe ideal knight held to code of chivalry, with duty to countrymen, duty to God, and duty to women, in Japan the code was known as bushido and stressed frugality, loyalty, the martial arts, and honor unto death ○ China had a central government strong enough to promote trade and peace, Japan had an emperor but he had little power, suffered from regional rivalries among aristocrats Korea ● Similarity to China ○ Centralized its government in the style of the Chinese ○ Adopted both Confucian and Buddhist beliefs ○ Adopted Chinese writing system, in 15th century Korea developed its own writing system ● Powerful Aristocracy ○ Landed aristocracy were more powerful in Korea than in China ○ Korean elite was able to prevent certain Chinese reforms Vietnam ● Adopted Chinese writing system and architectural styles, Vietnam also launched rebellions against Chinese influence at times ● Gender and Social Structure ○ Vietnamese women enjoyed greater independence
● Military Conflict with China 1.2: Developments in Dar al-Islam Invasions and Shifts in Trade Routes ● Egyptian Mamluks ○ Formed from enslaved people who served as soldiers and bureaucrats which gave them opportunities for advancement, later they seized control of the government. ● Seljuk Turks ○ A group of Muslims who began conquering parts of the Middle East eventually expanding their power almost as far east as Western China ● Mongols ○ The Mongols conquered the remaining Abbasid Empire in 1258 ● Economic Competition ● Crusaders ○ The Abbasids allowed Christians to travel easily to and from their holy sites in and around Jerusalem ○
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- Spring '16
- Dennis Wesney