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# Replication use enough subjects in each group to

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Replication: use enough subjects in each group to reduce chance variation in the results - Statistical significance: o An observed effect so large that it would rarely occur by chance find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com
o We hope to see a difference in the responses so large that it is unlikely to happen just because of chance variation. - If we observe statistically significant difference among the groups in a randomized comparative experiment, we have good evidence that the treatment actually caused these differences 9.6 Cautions About Experimentation - Cautions o Ensure all subjects are treated identically. For example, placebo-controlled. o Avoid unconscious bias. For example, double-blind method ** Lack of realism: the TV advertisement example, the students knew an experiment was going on, so we cannot be sure that results apply to everyday TV viewers 9.7 Matched Pairs and Other Block Designs - A block is a group of individuals that are known before the experiment to be similar in some way that is expected to affect the response of the treatment. In a block design, the random assignment of individuals to treatment is carried out separately within each block - Match pairs is a special case of block design that compares just 2 treatments. Choose pairs of subjects that are closely matched. Within each pair (block), randomly assign who will receive which treatment - It is also possible to just use a single person and give 2 treatments to this person over time in raŶdoŵ order. IŶ this Đase, the ͞ŵatĐhed pairs͟ is just the saŵe persoŶ at differeŶt poiŶts iŶ time - Types of experimental designs o Completely randomized designs: all the subjects are allocated at random among all the treatments o Block designs: experimental units are divided into groups of similar units called blocks; within the block the experimental units are allocated at random among all the treatments o Matched-pairs designs: compares 2 treatments, pairs of subjects are chosen as closely matched as possible find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com
February 14, 2017 Chapter 10: Data Ethics - The most complex issues of data ethics arise when we collect data from people. o All planned studies must be review in advance by an institutional review board charged with protecting the safety and well-being of the subjects o All individuals who are subjects in a study must give their informed consent before data are collected o All individual data must be kept confidential. Only statistical summaries for groups of subjects may be made public 10.1 Institutional Review Boards - Purpose of an institutional review board (IRB) is not to decide whether a proposed study will produce valuable information or whether it is statistically sound - Purpose is to protect the rights and welfare of human subjects (including patients) recruited to participate in research activities - The IRB reviews the plan of the study and can require changes 10.2 Informed Consent -

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