ii.The most common type of precipitation reaction is a doubledisplacement reaction or metathesis reaction.1.This reaction can also be referred to as an exchangereaction.2.Example: 2KBr(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) barb2rightPbBr2(s) +2KNO3(aq)iii.To predict precipitation reactions, the solubilities of reactants andproducts must be assessed.1.If all reactants and products are soluble in water, noproduct results.2.If one or more products is insoluble, the reaction willproceed and a solid substance will be observed.b.Acid–base neutralization reactionsi.An acid and base are combined to form an ionic compound (i.e.salt) and possibly water (if the base is a hydroxide).ii.A Brønsted–Lowry acid is defined as a proton donor.1.Example: HBr or H2SO4iii.A Brønsted–Lowry base is defined as a proton acceptor.1.Example: LiOH or NH3iv.An example reaction: LiOH(aq) + HBr(aq) barb2rightLiBr(aq) + H2O(l)v.Some ionic salts, when reacted with acid, form gases.1.The most common gases produced are CO2, SO2, and H2S.2.Example: K2CO3(aq) + 2HBr(aq) barb2right2KBr(aq) + H2O(l) +CO2(g)a.The H2O(l) + CO2(g) result from the spontaneousdecomposition of H2CO3(aq).c.Oxidation–reduction reactionsi.These reactions involve electron transfer where one species isoxidized and another species is reduced.1.Oxidation: loss of electrons or an increase in the oxidationnumber.2.Reduction: gain of electrons or a decrease in the oxidationnumber.ii.The most common types of oxidation–reduction reactions are:1.Combination (or synthesis) reactions2.Decomposition reactions3.Single displacement reactionsExperiment #4 Barnett
4.Combustion reactions2)There are a number of driving forces for reactions to occur:a.Formation of molecular compoundsi.Example: H2Ob.Formation of a gasi.Examples: H2S, CO2, SO2c.Formation of an insoluble precipitatei.See Table A attached for a comprehensive list of soluble andinsoluble salts in water.Introduction to Double Displacement Reactions: 1)A double displacement reaction (or metathesis reaction) is one in which two ioniccompounds in an aqueous solution exchange anions to produce two new species.2)The driving force for this type of reaction is typically the production of aninsoluble precipitate.a.If all products are soluble, no reaction will take place.3)Most double displacement reactions can be predicted by analyzing watersolubility of the products.4)An example precipitation reaction is depicted below.a.Al2(SO4)3(aq) + 6NaOH(aq) barb2right2Al(OH)3(s) + 3Na2SO4(aq)5)Most acid–base neutralization reactions can also be classified as doubledisplacement reactions.The Experimental Goal: 1)The goal of this experiment is to identify seven aqueous solutions usingqualitative analysis.a.Qualitative analysis is a systematic method of recording precipitationreactions, color changes, and other visible changes to determine chemicalcomposition.
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