Guest Workers Analogy to Athenian Democracy Citizens were a small elite ruling

Guest workers analogy to athenian democracy citizens

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Guest Workers Analogy to Athenian Democracy Citizens were a small elite ruling over others Foreigners (metics) had residence privileges, but permanently excluded from citizenship Violates principle of self-determination Democratic state: of the people, by the ppl, for the ppl Persons subject to authority of state can't be persistently excluded from membership
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Two Way of Counting/Weighing Claims In a "Carens World" o Everybody counts as 2 (has the same moral claim to justice, resources) o No basis for exclusion o Shared political projects, mutual obligations impossible? In a "Walzerian World" o Everybody *inside* the community counts as 1 (has a full claim to justice) o Everybody outside counts as 0 (for close to) o Exclusion is legitimate o But what about unfairness of life chances ? Compromises Between Two Worlds People should prove their worth to get access into country Letting people in based on needs or how much they could contribute People who can do the dirty work (jobs) that no one wants The Case for Discrimination Citizenship taxes Citizenship is a morally-arbitrary circumstance, not determined by individual effort. Yet determines life chance to a very large degree. If you were born as the citizen of a rich country you inherit a citizenship “rent” [economic term] Could we tax it? “Citizenship taxes” analog to inheritance taxes Variable Citizenship? Migration could make a significant difference in addressing global inequality But widespread resistance to migration Introduce various levels of citizenship (tax discrimination of migrants; obligation to return; no family reunification; no or limited access to social services etc.) e.g. Temporary worker programs
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Doing this would likely make native population more acceptant of migrants Option 1: “Guest worker regime” (Relatively) open access to the territory Strong differentiation in rights Citizenship very hard to access Option 2: “Immigration to liberal democracies” Non-Citizens Citizens access to territory highly restricted Less differentiation in rights Access to citizenship possible (at least for some) Example for Costs? Physical costs of migration Plane, boat, tickets Cost of crossing border (Visa, intermediaires) How can social networks change this equation? Rent, job Theories of Migration Different types of theories Micro-Level vs Macro-Level Theories Theories that explain how migration starts vs Theories/Mechanisms that explain the continuation/growth of migration streams Macro --> large scale Micro --> small scale How to evaluate theories?
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Macro-Economic Theories Migration and Labor Markets Migration caused by geographic differences in supply and demand for labor Wages low where capital scarce relative to labor Wages high where labor scarce relative to capital Wage gap is key cause of migration But Doesn't explain start or end of migrations o Migrations not triggered when gap is very large o Migration stop before gap is closed Large population with low wages --> Puerto Rico, Greece,
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