The answer to the third question Who would define the Organization that buys

The answer to the third question who would define the

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The answer to the third question Who would define the Organization that buys, which from the above explanation would define whether it is an Individual buying, or an Organization buying, or an Intermediary buying. Finally where, when and how, would define the Operation of purchase, viz., how does the buyer go about selecting, evaluating, deciding, on several issues before finally making a purchase. We may call the above the 4 Os (Phillip Kotler): These four aspects which we saw up to now, are more from the buyer’s perspective. When we look at the same from the marketer’s perspective, we come across the very commonly called 4 Ps of Marketing , viz. Product Price Place Promotion 7
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INTRODUCTION (E Jerome McCarthy) (You may often find additional Ps being talked about, such as packaging, people, personnel, politics, public opinion, passion. Some one will say in services 3 more Ps are people, process, physical evidence. However looking a bit deeply one can see that the initial 4 Ps are good enough to take care of the various critical aspects of marketing, the to he` are more or less variations only). The 4 Ps can also be looked at as: what does the Consumer need what does it Cost to the consumer to satisfy the need what is the Convenience created for the consumer to purchase the item what and how should Communication be made to the consumer these are called the 4 Cs of Marketing (Robert Lauterborn) The above gives a general framework within which marketing activities are concentrated. So if one has to lay out a framework within which marketing functions are to be evaluated, the same should factor in all the above elements. Many critics of marketing often opine that consumers would have been much better off in terms of cost of items if marketing expenses were not added on to the price. They also feel that advertisement and promotional expenses are indeed wastes. While there may be some logic to such criticism, marketing does have some positive side to it: These can be listed as under: Marketing (proactive) is largely responsible for improved standard of living, as a matter of fact, it improves the overall quality of living by making more people aware of products on offer. By fueling aspirations marketing creates more demands. 8
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INTRODUCTION This in turn spurs consumption and thereby production. When desires are increased the same leads to increased exertions on the part of the aspirers to acquire. However some darker sides to marketing can not be ignored: Con men and wheeler dealers may make false promises and claims, thereby misleading buyers. This can also happen when sales are pushed beyond a point. Quality may at times be sacrificed at the alter of quantity, as a result of which shoddy products may be passed off to buyers.
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