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Employees are expected to play in organizations

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employees are expected to play in organizations. Insofar as organizations areincreasingly assessing such employee activities (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin, & Cardy,1998), I propose the following:Hypotheses 5: Intellectance is a positive predictor of innovative performance.El and Workplace PerformanceA central theme in emotional intelligence research is that emotions serveimportant functions in human behavior, e.g., preparing for action, aiding cognition,58
and communications. Rather than being only dysfunctional and disruptive, emotionscan be helpful if employed properly (Gross & John, 2002; Gross &Keltner, 1999).As with almost all emergent areas of study, however, there is confusion or lack ofconsensus with respect to a construct definition of emotionalintelligence. Ciarrochiet al. (2001a), put El in perspective by outlining what it is as well as what it is not.Unlike some theorists (i.e., Matthews et al., 2002), Ciarrochi, Forgas, and Mayer(2001b) agree with Mayer and Salovey's (1997) conceptualization that says El is notabout stress, adaptation, mental health, relationship quality, work success or physicalhealth. On the contrary, these are life outcomes. In contrast with definitions offeredby 'mixed model' researchers who tend to blend El and performance, El is regardedas something that is helpful in understanding and predicting these life outcomes(Ciarrochi et al., 2001b).In outlining the theoretical underpinnings for their four-branch model ofemotional intelligence, Mayer, et al. (Mayer et al., 2002) set a platform forunderstanding the relationship between El and performance. According to them, thetheory of emotional intelligence is based on two main ideas: (1) intelligence involvesthe capacity for abstract reasoning, and (2) emotions are indicators of regular,identifiable meanings about relationships. Recently, Wolfe and Caruso (2002)summarized how the four branch model depicts the relationship between emotionsand thinking. For them, the key is "...that emotions and thinking are linked. Emotionscan be intelligent and intelligence can be smarter when it incorporates emotions."Thus, emotions are sophisticated and contain information of value. People not onlyuse emotions to think, they also think about emotions; emotion involves both skill andknowledge; individuals are different in respect to these skills; and these individualdifferences seem to have an impact (Caruso & Wolfe, 2002, p. 9).59
From a socioanalytic perspective (Hogan & Roberts, 2000; Hogan & Shelton,1998a), I think emotional intelligence can be considered an individual difference thatwill facilitate motivation to achieve, to get along with others, and to find meaning.Given the strong socially based nature of emotional intelligence, it can also beconceptualized in terms of a social skill and social skills, according to Hogan andcolleague's socioanalytic theory, will moderate relationships between personality andperformance. Consequently, I contend that El will have both direct and indirecteffects on employee performance.

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