Better suited to life in their environment than

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better suited to life in their environment than others Fast predators capture prey more efficiently Prey that are faster, better camouflaged or better protected avoid being caught.
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Variation and Adaptation Any heritable characteristic that increases an organisms ability to survive and reproduce in its environment is called an adaptation Examples of Adaptations: Tiger’s claws Camouflage colors Plant structures Avoidance behaviors
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Adaptations
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Survival of the Fittest Darwin felt that there must be a connection between an animal’s environment and how it survives Ability to survive and reproduce in a specific environment is called FITNESS Fitness depends upon how well an organism is suited for its environment Fitness is a result of ADAPTATION
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Good adaptations allow organisms to survive and are passed on to their offspring. Good fitness: Reproduce Low Fitness: Few offspring/extinction Darwin thought that this seemed very similar to artificial selection
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He referred to “survival of the fittest” as Natural Selection Survival means more than just staying alive. It means reproducing and passing adaptations on to the next generation Natural Selection: Nature chooses Artificial selection: Man chooses Favorable characteristics are inherited over several generations.
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Natural Selection Natural Selection (Bird of Paradise Mating Display) (Bird of Paradise Mating Display) Artificial Selection (Breeding Livestock) (Breeding Livestock)
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Natural Selection
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Natural Selection is the process by which organisms with variations most suited to their local environment survive and leave more offspring Natural Selection occurs in any situation in which more individuals are born than can survive Natural Selection
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Over time, natural selection results in changes in the inherited characteristics of a population. These changes increase a species’ fitness in its environment.
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DARWIN'S FOUR POSTULATES individuals within species vary some of these variations are passed on to offspring individuals vary in their ability to survive and reproduce individuals with the most favorable adaptations are more likely to survive and reproduce.
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Common Descent Natural selection produces organisms with different structures than their ancestor, different niches , and new habitats . Each living species has descended, with changes, over time .
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The Evolution of the Horse
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If we look back far enough we could find the common ancestors of all living things. A single “ tree of life ” links all living things This is known as the principle of common descent .
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16.4 Evidence of Evolution Darwin argued that living things have been evolving on Earth for millions of years. Today, fields like genetics and molecular biology support Darwin’s basic ideas about evolution
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Phylogeny
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(Albert et al. 1992) Carnivorous & Non-Carnivorous Plant Genera Drosophyllum Photo by: kent.la.coocan Dionaea Photo by: Kevin C.
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